## Steve Xu

Join The Waitlist For Our Free Diagnostic Test:

Scan the code:

Scan the code:

## EDITOR'S NOTE

My name is Steve and I set out on a mission
to truly empower kids in their educational
endeavours. Having been through all the
rigorous tests myself and in the education
industry for over a decade I have come to
understand the fundamental factors
required for students to excel in their
education.

I know you will find this book valuable and
if you would like to speak to my team and I,
reach out to us here:

https://scholarlytraining.com/

Regards, Steve.

## PREFACE

The Cloze passage (otherwise known as gapped texts) is one of the most enigmatic aspects of New South Wales OC and Selective Exams. Its cryptic code can only be broken by the most diligent of students who are well-versed in the subjects of scientific, global, historical and cultural texts. Unlike traditional reading comprehension, the cloze passage is open-ended in its nature and hinges on the ability of students to carefully discern between 7 options (as opposed to the traditional 4) through multitudinous paradigms of logical deduction, comprehension and grammatical syntax.

In addition, the students are required to take these standardized examinations under high time constraint and precision. Since the Cambridge style transition texts were launched during the selective exam of New South Wales 2021, parents, kids and even instructors had been confused about how to deal with these cloze passage type tests swiftly and accurately.

Surely having an accessible, reliable, gold standard guide should therefore be a necessity for those striving to learn, improve or fine tune their skill-set ahead of the OC or Selective exams. Having coached thousands of students at Scholarly Prep for these exams and achieving exemplary results, it is only fair for me to spread my knowledge to those who seek for it. Therefore, this book you see here is a structured, easy to understand, and comprehensive instruction manual knowledge on how to break down cloze passage evaluation questions.

In this book, every kind of in-depth evaluation was divided into chapters to enhance students’ skills. Beyond these specific training resources, I have identified and described tactics and techniques on how cloze passages can be approached with precision and efficiency, along with other diverse complexities in the different types of passages on which students can be examined to increase their awareness.

It is worth highlighting that author’s true and original meaning can be so subjective not only in a cloze passage but in English as one language that it can be easily misunderstood by students of all ages. It is known that OC and selective examination question creators exploit this to screen out students who do not completely comprehend the questions by injecting crucial words.

## I. Identifying the Objects

1.1 Point vs Logic ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.2 Compare vs Contrast ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2

1.3 Problem vs. Solution…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5

1.4 Cause vs Effect………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7

1.6 Extra Tips: Consideration when analyzing the passage …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10

1.7 Extra Tips: Considerations when you are looking at the options for the answer ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11

## II. Chronological Order of the Passage

2.1 Feature Articles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

2.2 Historical Texts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14

2.3 Scientific Texts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….15

2.4 Biographical Texts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16

2.5 Political Texts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17

2.6 Instructional Texts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18

## III. Microstructure

3.1 Pronouns…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

3.2 Conjunctions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29

3.3 Prepositions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34

3.4Context Clues………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………41

## IV. Flora and Fauna

4.1 The Largest Bee…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45

4.2 White Grizzly Bear in Canada………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

4.3 Rare Black Leopard…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

4.4 A Sunflower…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..56

4.5 A Species of Fish…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..59

4.6How Koalas Beat the Heat…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..62

4.7A species of Parrot…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65

## V. Global Studies

5.1 Melbourne Street Art…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45

5.2 Travel Guide to Chobe, Botswana………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

5.3 To Antartica or Not…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

5.4 Baku – Azerbaijan’s Capital…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..56

5.5 Supporting Madagascar Conservation and Community…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..59

5.6 A week in Bali………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….62

5.7 Go or No Go to Myanmar…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65

## VI. History and Culture

6.2 2016 Olympics Athletes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..100

## 1.1 POINT AND LOGIC

• Definition – Several details of something to give the reader a mental picture are provided by the author. The author then backs up these claims with evidence or reasoning.
• Clues – many adjectives, characteristics, or examples

It is one of the most important context clues strategies. Reading has to make sense, so when we come to a word we don’t understand, we make inferences based on our prior knowledge and experiences (our schema) and based on the clues the author provides. Students are asked to make a good guess, using all of the clues available.

## 1.2 COMPARE AND CONTRAST

• Definition – Similarities and differences between persons, things, concepts, or ideas are discussed by the author.
• Likeness and differences are discussed, also, both, in contrast, etc.

Use transitional words when writing a compare-contrast assignment to show the relationship between your ideas and to connect your main points.

## Transitional Words showing Comparison:

• In comparison
• Equally
• Likewise
• In the same way
• Equivalently
• Similarly
• Comparably
• In a similar manner
• moreover

## Transitional Words showing Contrast:

• But
• In contrast
• Otherwise
• Conversely
• On the contrary
• However
• On the other hand
• Otherwise
• Rather
• Although
###### 2

Organizing a Compare-Contrast Paragraph

## There are two main ways that can organize your compare-contrast paragraph:

• Block Method
When using the block method, begin by discussing all the main points about the first topic you are discussing, then move on and make all the points you want to make about the second topic (and then the third topic, etc., if you are comparing and contrasting more than two things). For example, if you were comparing academic writing standards to professional writing standards, you would talk about academic writing in the first part and then move on to talk about professional writing in the second part.
###### 3

Point-by-Point Method
When using point-by-point method, arrange your paragraph according to the main points, rather than by topic. The paragraph will discuss each of your main points, but include discussions of both topics as they relate to each of your points. For example, if you were using a point-by-point method to compare and contrast academic writing and professional writing, you might talk about similarities and
differences regarding their paragraph structure, point of view, and tone.

## 1.3 PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

• Definition – Information about a problem and explanations of one or
more solutions are given by the author.
• Clues – a problem is solved or needs solving, problem, solution, solve Problem-solution essays consider the problems of a particular situation and give solutions to those problems.

They are in some ways similar to cause and effect essays, especially in terms of structure (see below). Problem-solution essays are actually a sub-type of another type of essay, which has the following four components:

• Situation
• Problem
• Solution
• Evaluation

The two types of structure, block and chain, are shown in the diagram below. This is for a short essay, which includes the ‘situation’ in the introduction and ‘evaluation’ in the conclusion. A longer essay, for example one of around 1,000 words, with citations, would probably have these two sections as separate paragraphs in the main body

## 1.4 CAUSE AND EFFECT

• Definition – The author describes an incident, then an event or several
events (cause) and the events that follow (effect).
• Clues – cause, because, affect, as a result of, due to, reason A cause and effect essay looks at the reasons (or causes) for something, then discusses the results ( or effects).

For this reason, cause and effect essays are sometimes referred to as reason and result essays. They are one of the most common forms of organization in academic writing. Sometimes the whole essay will be cause and effect, though sometimes this may be only part of the whole essay. It is also possible, especially for short exam essays, that only the causes or the effects, not both, are discussed. See the examples below.

• Discuss the causes and effects of global warming [’cause and effect’ essay]
• Explain the high death rate in Chernobyl [’causes’ only essay]
• Discuss the WTO and its effects on the Chinese economy [‘effects’ only essay]
###### 8

• Definition – the author probes a question that relates to the facts
presented, and provides a resolution to the given question.
• Clues – question marks, keywords used in the question seen in later parts of the passage.

A question and answer essay easily grabs the reader’s attention and sets up the point of the piece immediately. Using this strategy demonstrates a firm stance. Whether questions are answered directly or indirectly, questions bring your readers closer to the text by making them feel part of the discourse. A question and answer essay can thus make a flat point more interesting.

## 1.6 EXTRA TIPS: CONSIDERATIONS WHEN ANALYSING THE PASSAGE

• Why did the author mention this? What purpose does it serve?
• Where does it lead to?
• What clues can I pick up on to lead me to the next point? Did it mention a certain subject matter that needs to be explained?
• What is the main point the author is trying to make?
• How will he/she develop this point through the rest of the article?

For this reason, cause and effect essays are sometimes referred to as reason and result essays. They are one of the most common forms of organization in academic writing. Sometimes the whole essay will be cause and effect, though sometimes this may be only part of the whole essay. It is also possible, especially for short exam essays, that only the causes or the effects, not both, are discussed. See the examples below.

## Evaluate on the implications of these tips

Analyzing a literary work is the point at which you begin to fill in the pieces of the story a bit more. You explore setting, characters, main points more deeply while giving consideration to the author’s style and language. These questions allow the reader to look more closely at the details that fit the passage together. When you pay particular attention to details that relate to the central idea of the passage, this helps you to understand the entirety of the passage.

## 1.7 EXTRA TIPS: CONSIDERATIONS WHEN YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE OPTIONS FOR THE ANSWER

• Is it too broad or specific?
• If we look at the OREO (neighbouring sentences), does it mention the
same points or continue/introduce?
• How do the sentences fit in the chronology? (look at the dates- that’s
key)
• Try to arrange the sentences in sequential order. You can compare how
they fit with each other. ESPECIALLY IF THEY ARE SIMILAR

## Evaluate on the implications of these tips

There has to be careful consideration when one is faced with several options that may or may not lead to the correct answer. In this case, it may be helpful if you are guided with these questions. You have to carefully consider the answer choices and whether or not they relate to the question. Also, one has to take a closer look at the neighboring sentences,whether they may be leading to the correct answer.

## 2.1 FEATURE ARTICLES

• Introduction – Providing information about the topics and characters
• Credible source – Quotes from experts, experiences about the topic
• Explanation – Commentary, more quotes, opinions, discussion
• Conclusion – Providing a final deduction, call to action.

Feature articles are known for their eye-catching headers!

## So, how do you write catchy headlines?

• Use emotive language
• Keep it short and shappy
• Give an imperative

The introduction needs to “hook” the readers “The set the scene and draw interest from the audience.”
The body of your feature is where you write all of your juicy information. “This is where the story unfolds and share your opinions.” Show don’t tell is a commonly taught writing technique. It requires students to describe and ‘show’ what is happening instead of simply recounting (Telling). Remember, a feature article is much more colorful than a news report.

## How to ‘show not tell’:

• Write vivid descriptions and imagery.
• Rely on the different senses to describe (sight, smell, hearing, taste)
• Don’t state emotions.

## 2.2 HISTORICAL TEXTS

• Introduction of historical phenomena (STATE, ANECDOTES, QUOTES, SPECIFIC INSIGHTFUL EVENT)
• Mystery/Point of interest (1 specific subject matter)- Murder, Election, Mystery
• Exploration into the point of interest (CHRONOLOGY)- 1500s, 1600s, 1700s… (evolution of the process)
• Quotes from Key Academic Experts on findings/discoveries (KEY PEOPLE)
• Results of research
• How does history influence the world nowadays? Events run in the pasthow do they affect people in the present day

Historical text informs the reader about key events and important people from the past It gives the reader an understanding of what led up to the important events in history Examples of historical text are: nonfiction history books, autobiographies, biographies, historical research websites, diaries, social studies/history textbooks, past newspapers, encyclopedias.

## 2.3 SCIENTIFIC TEXTS

• Sizzling Start/Interesting Event
• Introduction of species or subject (plants, animals etc.)
• Description of locality, habitat, origins, demographics (age, gender) and
special facts such as (endangerment/extinction)
• Problem/Mystery surrounding the phenomena (anecdotes- personal
experiences)
• Process/chronology (order of time)/instructions of solving the problemdescription of scientific experiment (hypothesis, method, findings,
conclusion) (DATES, YEARS)
• Stacking of different dates and the evolution of the scientific experiment
• Quotes from different scientific experts on the genesis, process,
success/failure of the scientific experiment
• RESULTS and CONCLUSION

## 2.4 BIOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

understanding of the world around them. Topics may include nature, animals, plants, the
scientific method, space, chemistry, geology, the human body, and weather. Examples of
scientific text: nonfiction science books, science magazines, science textbooks, science blogs,
science research websites, scientific journals.

## EXAMPLE

1. Orientation – Introduction on the subject and explanation on his/her
significance
2.  Life events in chronological order – Childhood, education, career,
achievements

3.  Summary – Emphasising his/her significance and notable contributions The purpose of a biography is to share the life of another person with an audience.

An author may choose to write a biography because they find the subject’s story to be interesting or to have themes that apply to life today. Some authors choose to write a biography due to a lack of information about an interesting subject, or to update the public with facts that an existing biography may have missed. Biographical stories can be inspiring—highlighting the achievements of a particular figure, pointing out ways the subject overcame hardship—giving the readers a sense of encouragement. Biographies can also serve as cautionary tales, warning readers on who not to become.

## 2.5 POLITICAL TEXTS

1.  POINT – e.g. ban child labour as it strips children of their education (future)- trapped in the cycle of poverty forever
2.  EVIDENCE – e.g. RESEARCH that backs up your point- 215 million child labourers- illiteracy)
3.  CONSEQUENCE e.g. PAIN in the future- read/write- barred from skilled employment- countries would be dependent on western nations forever, economic development is stunted.

4.  SOLUTION – e.g. implementation strategies, international treaties, protect rights of children, increase the accountability of local police forces, reduce corruption, punishments for companies that use child labour etc.

A political essay will address social ideas, social theories, societal change, analysis and psychology. Political essays have a variety of topics but they usually have something to do with areas that impact people. The following are some sample topics: drug abuse and its effects on society, welfare and the government, economy and history, crime and social controls, the evolution of society out of hardships, crime on the Internet, changes in society and social
values.

## 2.6 INSTRUCTIONAL TEXTS

1. Broad headline (+specific anecdote or what is happening around the world)

2. Specific anecdote (human experience or example – might include a quote)

3. Description of problem/mystery

4. Ways to solve the problem/mystery

5. Different ways to solve the problem/mystery and the effectiveness of those ways Conclusion

Instructional essays — also called how-to or process-analysis essays — tell the reader how to do something. A good instructional essay will cover all necessary steps to accomplish a task, learn a skill or understand an activity or process. The essay should clearly indicate what the reader will learn or accomplish. Choose a process you know well, keep the audience in mind, use straightforward language and don’t skip steps when writing an instructional essay.

## 3.1 PRONOUNS

Pronoun Definition: A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns refer to either a noun that has already been mentioned or to a noun that does not need to be named specifically.

## Personal Pronouns Definition

A pronoun that expresses a distinction of person

## EXAMPLE

A personal pronoun is a short word we use as a simple substitute for the proper name of a person. Each of the English personal pronouns shows us the grammatical person, gender, number, and case of the noun it replaces. I, you, he, she, it, we they, me, him, her, us, and them are all personal pronouns. Personal pronouns are the stunt doubles of grammar; they stand in for the people (and perhaps animals) who star in our sentences. They allow us to speak and write with economy because they enable us to avoid repeating cumbersome proper nouns all the live-long day. First-, Second-, and Third-Person Pronouns A personal pronoun can be in one of three “persons.” A first-person pronoun refers to the speaker, a second-person pronoun refers to the person being spoken to, and a third-person pronoun refers to the person being spoken of. For each of these three grammatical persons, there is a plural as well.

## Demonstrative pronouns definition

That, this, these and those are demonstrative pronouns. They take the place of a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned.

###### 19

Here is a letter with no return address. Who could have sent this? What a fantastic idea! This is the best thing I’ve heard all day. If you think gardenias smell nice, try smelling these. That is used for singular items that are far away. Those is used for multiple items that are far away. Again, the distance can be physical or metaphorical. A house like that would be a nice place to live. Some new flavors of soda came in last week. Why don’t you try some of those? Those aren’t swans, they’re geese.

## Interrogative pronouns definition

An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun which is used to make asking questions easy. There are just five interrogative pronouns. Each one is used to ask a very specific question or indirect question. Some, such as “who” and “whom,” refer only to people. Others can be used to refer to objects or people. Once you are familiar with interrogative pronouns, you’ll find that it’s very easy to use them in a variety of situations.

## EXAMPLE

The five interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and whose.

• What – Used to ask questions about people or objects. Examples:

1. What do you want for dinner?
2. I wonder what we’re doing tomorrow.
3. What is your friend’s name?
4. What time are we supposed to be there?

• Which – Used to ask questions about people or objects. Examples:

1. Which color do you prefer?

3. She asked which train to take?

4. Which seat would you like?

1. Who is that?

###### 20
2. Who was driving the car?
3. I’m wondering who will be at the party.
4. Who is going to take out the trash?

• Whom – This interrogative pronoun is rarely seen these days, but when it shows up, it

1. Whom did you speak to?

2. Whom do you prefer to vote for?

3. You should ask whom to call.

4. Whom do you live with?

• Whose – Used to ask questions about people or objects, always related to possession.
Examples:

1. Whose sweater is this?

2. Whose parents are those?

3. I wonder whose dog knocked our garbage can over.

4. Whose phone is that?

In some cases, interrogative pronouns take on the suffix –ever. A few can also take on the oldfashioned suffix –soever, which is rarely seen in writing these days. For example:

• Whatever
• Whatsoever
• Whichever
• Whoever
• Whosoever
• Whomever
• Whomsoever
• Whosever
###### 21

Interrogative pronouns are very easy to remember and use. Memorize them to make things even simpler.

## EXAMPLE

Sentences containing interrogative pronouns are always questions, so they always end with a question mark. In the following examples, interrogative pronouns have been italicized for ease of identification.

1. What do you want for your birthday?

2. Which shirt do you think looks better on me?

3. Who do you think will win the playoff game?

4. To whom are you speaking?

5. Whom socks are those?

## Indefinite pronouns definition

The term indefinite pronouns means pronouns that do not refer to any person, amount, or thing. Indefinite pronouns can be singular, plural, or both, depending on the context. It is essential to pay close attention to whether the subject of the indefinite pronoun is singular or plural in order to make a subject and verb agreement.

## EXAMPLE

• SINGULAR

Anybody – Everybody – Somebody – Nobody
Each one – Anyone – Everyone – No one –Someone
Anything – Everything – Something – Nothing
Each – Either – Neither

EXAMPLES:
Nobody likes pizza. [Nobody matches the verb likes and is singular]
Everyone attends my party. [Everyone matches the verb attends and is singular]

###### 22

Something happens to my sister. [Something matches the verb happens and is singular] Each tree has roots. [Each matches the verb has and is singular]

• PLURAL

Both-others-Few-Several-Many

• EXAMPLES

Both of them graduate this semester. [Both refers to them and is plural]
Other students have a gift card. [Other refers to students and is plural]
Several road signs need to be removed. [Several refers to road signs and is plural]
Many employees like their jobs. [Many refers to employees and is plural]

• SINGULAR/PLURAL

Most-More-All-Some-None

• EXAMPLES:

Most of the hair is lost. [Most refers to hair and is singular]
Most of the blankets are dirty. [Most refers to blankets and is plural]
More of the product is found online. [More refers to product and is singular]
More of the baskets arrive at the store. [More refers to baskets and is plural]
All of the water has spilled. [All refers to water and is singular]

## Distributive pronouns definition

Distributive Pronoun refers to person or thing. So this pronoun is always singular and we use it with singular noun and verb. We use this pronoun to describe all the members of the particular
group. The most common used distributive pronouns are:
Each, every, either, neither, everyone, non, no one, any

## EXAMPLE

• Each new day is different. (NOT Each new days are different.)
• Either girl can do that. (NOT Either girls can do that.)
correct.)
• Each of the answers is correct. (NOT Each of the answer is correct.)
• Neither of the girls can do that. (NOT Either of the girl can do that.)
• None of the three answers is correct. (NOT Neither of the three answers is correct.)
• We invited several friends, but none came. (NOT but neither came.)
• You can take any of the three shirts. (NOT You can take either of the three shirts.)

## Possessive pronouns definition

Possessive pronouns come in two flavors: limiting and absolute. My, your, its, his, her, our, their and whose are used to show that something belongs to an antecedent.

## EXAMPLE

• Each new day is different. (NOT Each new days are different.)
• Either girl can do that. (NOT Either girls can do that.)
correct.)
• Each of the answers is correct. (NOT Each of the answer is correct.)
• Neither of the girls can do that. (NOT Either of the girl can do that.)
• None of the three answers is correct. (NOT Neither of the three answers is correct.)
• We invited several friends, but none came. (NOT but neither came.)
• You can take any of the three shirts. (NOT You can take either of the three shirts.)

## Possessive pronouns definition

Possessive pronouns come in two flavors: limiting and absolute. My, your, its, his, her, our, their and whose are used to show that something belongs to an antecedent.

## EXAMPLE

Sarah is working on her application. Just put me back on my bike. The students practiced their presentation after school.
The absolute possessive pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, ours, and theirs. The absolute forms can be substituted for the thing that belongs to the antecedent.
Are you finished with your application? Sarah already finished hers. The blue bike is mine. I practiced my speech and the students practiced theirs.
Some possessive pronouns are easy to mix up with similar-looking contractions. Remember, possessive personal pronouns don’t include apostrophes.

## Reciprocal pronouns definition

A reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun which is used to indicate that two or more people are

###### 24

carrying out or have carried out an action of some type, with both receiving the benefits or consequences of that action simultaneously. Any time something is done or given in return, reciprocal pronouns are used. The same is true any time mutual action is expressed.

## EXAMPLE

There are only two reciprocal pronouns. Both of them allow you to make sentences simpler. They are especially useful when you need to express the same general idea more than once.

• Each other
• One another

Reciprocal pronouns are easy to use. When you want to refer to two people, you will normally use “each other.” When referring to more than two people, for example the students in a lecture hall, you will normally use “one another.”

## EXAMPLE

Reciprocal pronouns help prevent repetition within sentences. In the following examples, reciprocal pronouns have been italicized for ease of identification.

1. Maria and Juan gave each other gold rings on their wedding day.

2. Maria and Juan kissed each other at the end of the ceremony.

3. Terry and Jack were talking to each other in the hallway.

4. We give each other gifts during the holidays.

5. The students congratulated one another after giving practice speeches.

6. The kids spent the afternoon kicking the ball to one another.

7. The defendants blamed one another for the crime they were charged with.

## Relative pronouns definition

The relative pronouns are: who, whom, whose, which, and that. Relative pronouns introduce subordinate clauses functioning as adjectives. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive subordinate clauses, and do not use commas to set off restrictive clauses.

###### 25

The choice of relative pronouns is determined by the way the pronoun is used and the noun or pronoun to which it refers. Who, which, and that take verbs that agree with their antecedents.

## The Function of Relative Pronouns

The function of a relative pronoun is to head (or introduce) an adjective clause. An adjective clause follows a noun:

To identify it.
For example:
The man who won the lottery is outside.
(The adjective clause (highlighted) identifies the man.)(2) To tell us something interesting
For example:
Inspector Smith, who won the lottery, is outside.
Relative pronouns example
Here are some simple examples:
That The dog that stole the pie is back. (The relative pronoun is bold. The adjective clause
is highlighted.)
Which My new dog, which I bought last year, loves green beans.
Who The person who bought his car found a 3-carat diamond under the seat.
Whom Our lawyer, whom we employed for over a year, was related to the complainant.
Whose The young girl whose cat scratched our sofa has offered to replace the cushions

## Intensive pronouns definition

An intensive pronoun is almost identical to a reflexive pronoun, but their functions differ. Intensive pronouns are used to add emphasis to the subject or antecedent of the sentence. You’ll usually find the intensive pronoun right after the noun or pronoun it’s modifying, but not necessarily.

###### 26

The intensive/reflexive pronouns include myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Furthermore, an intensive pronoun is defined as a pronoun that ends in “self” or “selves” and places emphasis on its antecedent. The intensive/reflexive pronouns include myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Furthermore, an intensive pronoun is defined as a pronoun that ends in “self” or “selves” and places emphasis on its antecedent.

## The Difference Between Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

You can tell the difference between a reflexive pronoun and an intensive pronoun easily: intensive pronouns aren’t essential to a sentence’s basic meaning, whereas reflexive pronouns are. To differentiate an intensive pronoun from a reflexive pronoun, remove it from the sentence; if it’s an intensive pronoun, the sentence will still make sense. If the sentence no longer makes sense when the pronoun is removed, it’s a reflexive pronoun.

## EXAMPLE

• Himself
• Herself
• Yourself
• Themselves
• Ourselves

Intensive pronouns might not be necessary, but they serve the important function of making your writing more interesting as well as more meaningful, particularly in formal situations. Use them sparingly to ensure that the emphasis they provide isn’t lost.

## EXAMPLE

Intensive pronouns are used to add emphasis to statements. In the following examples, the
intensive pronouns have been italicized for ease of identification

1. Jesse wondered aloud whether he himself was the only one seeing what was
happening.

2. Maria knew that she herself could make a positive impact on the world, if only she put
her mind to it.

3. You yourself can easily transform your body: All it takes is a proper diet and plenty of
exercise.

4. The team knew that they themselves were responsible for playing their best.

5. We ourselves are the ones who make the greatest impact upon the world we live in.

## Implications of pronouns:

Pronouns are an important part of speech because you use them frequently. And you should use pronouns because they serve important purposes. However, you need to make sure when you use pronouns, you’re using them effectively. The main purpose of a pronoun is “to replace” a noun. The noun a pronoun replaces is called an antecedent. Pronouns, though, need to be coordinated with their antecedents. If they’re not, confusion quickly emerges for readers.

## 3.2 CONJUNCTIONS

Writing shorter sentences is an easy strategy for getting your thoughts down fast when you’re writing first drafts, and for avoiding grammar mistakes, but in the end it weakens the effectiveness of your writing. If you can combine simpler sentences into longer and more complex ones, your writing will have a lot more variety. It will also help you to communicate more content to your audiences—when you combine sentences, you can efficiently tell your readers about the relationships between different things

Conjunctions are parts of speech that connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. There are
three kinds of conjunctions: coordinating, paired, and subordinating.

## Types of Conjunctions

1. Coordinating conjunctions connect words or phrases that serve the same grammatical purpose in a sentence. There are seven main coordinating conjunctions in English, which form the acronym FANBOYS:

2. Subordinating conjunctions join a subordinate clause to a main clause and establish a relationship between the two.

3. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to correlate two parts of a sentence of equal importance. Correlative conjunctions often connect two singular subjects with a singular verb, or two plural subjects with a plural verb.

4. Coordinating conjunctions definition

5. A coordinating conjunction is a word that joins two elements of equal grammatical rank and syntactic importance. They can join two verbs, two nouns, two adjectives, two phrases, or two independent clauses. The seven coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.

## Meet the Key Players: FANBOYS

The best way to remember the seven coordinating conjunctions is by using the acronym
FANBOYS:
For And Nor But Or Yet So

## EXAMPLE

The most common coordinating conjunctions are summed up in the acronym FANBOYS. Here are the seven types of conjunctions in this category, using this particular mnemonic.

1. For: Using the conjunction “for” indicates a relationship between two main clauses by indicating that one clause is the reason that the other is happening. For example, you could say: “I want to go to the pizza parlor, for it is my birthday.

2. And: Using “and” indicates additional information of equal weight to the information provided in the first clause. For example, you could say “I went to the grocery store and bought snacks for the party.”

3. Nor: “Nor” connects two clauses that have negative modifiers. For example, it would be correct to say “I don’t get enough sleep, nor do I try.”

4. But: The conjunction “but” precedes information that opposes the first main clause in some way. For example, you could say: “I want to go outside, but I don’t have any sunblock.”

5. Or: “Or” indicates a difference between two equal options. For example, you could say “I can’t decide whether I want chocolate or vanilla.”

6. Yet: “Yet” introduces a new idea that contradicts the main clause. For example, you could say “I’m always eating, yet I’m always hungry.”

7. So: “So” joins two equally-weighted thoughts that imply cause and effect. For example, you could say, “There wasn’t a wait at the DMV, so I decided to go this morning.”

## Correlative conjunctions definition

Correlative conjunctions are one of the three main types of conjunctions used in the English language to create smooth flow and reduce sentence fragments, along with coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to correlate

###### 30

two parts of a sentence of equal importance. Correlative conjunctions often connect two singular subjects with a singular verb, or two plural subjects with a plural verb. They apply a relation between two subjects or two verbs that act in tandem with each other

## EXAMPLE

Correlative conjunction pairs work together to indicate a correlation between two subjects, express details, or provide clarity. They involve a first conjunction that connects to another part of the sentence with a second conjunction. Some common correlative conjunctions include the following pairs of words.

1. Both/and: Using “both” and “and” implies a correlation between two subjects that are performing the same action. An example of using these correlative conjunctions is: “We’ll both be leaving the party and taking one car.”

2. Either/or: Using “either” and “or” connects two positive statements of equal weight. For example, you could say: “My brother is either working upstairs or slacking off downstairs.”

3. Neither/nor: “Neither/nor” connects two negative statements of equal weight. For example, you could say: “I will neither watch the show nor read the book.”

4. Whether/or: “Whether/or” connects two possible actions of a subject. For example, you could say: “I was not sure whether you would show up or not.”

5. Not only/but also: “I’m not only hungry but also tired.”

6. Rather/than: “Rather/than” presents a subject’s preference for one thing over another. For example, you could say: “I would rather have coffee than tea.”

7. Such/that: “Such/that” connects two independent clauses in a way that applies a reason for an action. For example, you could say: “Such is the pain of my headache that I cannot get out of bed.”

## Subordinating conjunctions definition

A subordinating conjunction is used in English grammar to connect a dependent clause (or subordinate clause) to an independent clause (or main clause) to make a complex sentence. These single words or phrases clarify specific information about the sentence like time, cause

###### 31

or condition. Clauses that begin with a subordinating conjunction cannot stand on their own as a complete sentence, and would simply be sentence fragments. Unlike coordinating conjunctions which link together two main clauses of equal grammatical rank, subordinating conjunctions connect two unequal clauses.

## EXAMPLE

6 Types of Subordinating Conjunctions
There are dozens of common subordinating conjunctions, many of which serve to clarify or add information to the independent clause. Below is a list of subordinators you’ll often find in everyday conversation and literature.

1. Comparison: Some of the subordinating conjunctions that establish a comparison
between the main clause and the subordinate clause include “than,” “rather than,”
“instead of,” “whether,” “although,” “as much as,” and “whereas.”

2. Time: The subordinating conjunctions that specify time include “as soon as,” “once,”
“while,” “when,” “whenever,” “after,” “since,” “before,” “until,”and “now that.”

3. Concession: Coordinating conjunctions can add information that indicates an obstacle
to the main clause. Concession subordinating conjunctions include “although,” “lest,”
“though,” and “even though.”

4. Reason: Certain subordinating conjunctions can be tacked on to the beginning of a
subordinate clause to imply cause and effect with the main clause. These words
include “because,” “hence,” “since,” “lest,” “so,” “so that,” “in order to,” and “as.”

5. Place: Some of the subordinating conjunctions that reveal information about place in a
sentence include “where” or “wherever.”

6. Condition: Coordinating conjunctions can be used to indicate conditionality between a
main and subordinate clause with words like “in case,” “lest,” “only if,” “supposing,” or
“whether or not.”

Implications of conjunctions:
Using a conjunction properly depends on the type of conjunction you’re using and where it is in the sentence. Here are a few tips for using conjunctions properly

###### 32

1. Punctuate a subordinating conjunction according to its placement in the sentence. If the subordinating conjunction is at the beginning of a sentence, then use a comma following the dependent clause. If the subordinating conjunction comes after an independent clause, do not use a comma.

2. You usually omit a comma with a correlative conjunction. They apply relation between two words, phrases, or clauses, and do not need the extra punctuation.

3. You might or might not need to use a comma with a coordinating conjunction. If you are punctuating a sentence with a coordinating conjunction that pairs words or phrases, do not use a comma. If you are punctuating two or more independent clauses, use a comma before the conjunction.

## 3.3 PREPOSITIONS

A preposition is a word that links other parts of speech together. In English grammar, a preposition (or prepositional phrase) explains the relationship (typical spatial or temporal) between various nouns and verbs, as well as some adjectives and adverbs. An example of a prepositional phrase is “under the table” where “under” is
the preposition and “the table” is the object of the preposition. If we use it in a larger noun phrase like “the carpet under the table,” we learn the relationship between the carpet and the table.

## Types of Conjunctions

Per English grammar rules, there are four different types of prepositions.

1. Prepositions of place: This type of preposition explains the physical location of something. Examples include words like “on,” “above,” “under,” and “beside.”

2. Prepositions of time: This type of preposition explains where something is in time. Examples include words like “before,” “after,” “since,” and “during.”

3. Prepositions of direction/Phrasal Preposition: This type of preposition evokes a sense of direction. Examples include words like “toward,” “through,” and “past.”

4. Prepositions of agent/instrument (things): These prepositions describe relationships between verbs and nouns. Examples include words like “on,” “by,” “with,” and “without.

## Simple Preposition definition

Simple prepositions are short words that we usually use before nouns or pronouns to indicate the relation of the noun to the rest of the phrase or sentence.
English prepositions form a very large list, over 150 in total, and they can be very tricky to master. The most common prepositions in English are simple prepositions like: at, in, on, by, to,

###### 34

for, until, since, before, after, about, from, with etc.

## EXAMPLE

At- Weekends, any clock time (at 16:00), nights

• Let’s meet at the weekend.
• We saw you at 17:30 last Friday.
• At night time, we love to party.

In – Any time of day, years, months and time periods (in the holidays, vacations)

• I was born in 1990.
• The festivals are held in July.
• What are you going to do in the holidays/spring break?

On – days of the week

• We’re going to see each other on Monday.
• I caught up with her on Tuesday.

By – When someone or something is close to someone or something

• The trees are by the river.
• I live by my friend

Until – Marks the beginning or start of something until it ends

• We have English lessons from 17:00 until 18:00 every day.
• To – Strictly for telling the time
I saw him from morning to night.
• Let’s meet from 20:00 to 22:00

Before – Used to reference a time that was before another time

Since – To reference a point in time

• He’s been living in the United States since 2009.

Ago – Used to reference a certain time in the past

• Ten years ago we left Ireland to go to the United Kingdom.

For- Duration of time, a period of time.

• Our daughter has been here all her life.
• I’ve been living in London for eight years
###### 35

Simple prepositions of place (direction and position): at, in, on, by, from, to, through, across, above, over, under, into, onto, towards and next.

At – position at a point ; used for common names such as buildings, companies, etc.; used with collective or group activities

• Meet me at the store.
• I work at Burger king, at English reservoir, at the Empire State Building.

In- very large areas ; 3d space

• I live in Spain/New York.
• We’re in a room.

On – position on a line ; surface ; ‘attached to’

• My pen is on the table.
• I have a ring on my finger.

## Double preposition definition

Double prepositions are a combination of two prepositions. Speaking about concept, a double preposition is similar to a compound preposition with one basic difference – a compound preposition is a combination of a simple preposition and a non preposition word while a double preposition is a combination of two simple prepositions made into one word. Some examples of double prepositions are – into, onto, throughout, upon, without, inside, out of, from within etc.

## Consider the following sentences

• He was too deeply engrossed into the activity.
• The prestige of a nation lay upon its citizens.
###### 36
• He climbed onto the chair.
• She was laughing throughout the movie.
• He would not be able to make it without you.
• The book is inside my bag.
• We ran out of fuel.
• The voice that changed him came from within.

## Compound preposition definition

Unlike Simple prepositions which are simple and short word, a Compound Preposition is a combination of words. According to, aside from, because of, are the few examples of compound preposition.

## EXAMPLE

Let us use these words to form simple sentences

• According to his teacher he is a good student.
• The room was clean aside from a few strewn pieces of paper.
• He worked because of the money that he gets.
• You should have gone west instead of going east.

In the above sentences ‘According to’, aside from, because of, and instead of are examples of compound prepositions. Consider the first sentence- ‘to’ is a simple preposition and ‘according to’ is a compound preposition. Likewise- ‘aside from’, because of, instead of are all the examples of compound prepositions.

The compound prepositions covered till now were two words compound interest, we also have three word compound prepositions like- in addition to, in spite of, in front of, on condition of, on top of etc . We will now go through a few sentences using three words compound prepositions-

###### 37
• In addition to the allowances, he is also entitled for the bonus.
• In spite of being subjected to frequent criticism, he still manages to do well.
• Your car was parked in front of the petrol pump.
• The information was provided by a source on condition of anonymity.
• The books were lying on top of the table.

## Participle Preposition definition

Participle preposition is an action word finishing with ‘- ing’, ‘- en’ or ‘- ed’, which likewise goes about as a relational word. Probably the most well-known instances of participle relational words are – given, considering, with respect to, gave and so forth There are different types of the preposition, and participle preposition is one of those preposition types. It is also known as a participial preposition. If we have to define the participle preposition, it is a participle, which ends with -ing or -ed, and are used as a preposition in the sentence. These are participles which are now accepted as prepositions due to their long term and widespread usage.

## EXAMPLE

List/Examples/Words
Concerning, failing, considering, regarding, barred, during, accepting, notwithstanding, expecting, following, excluding, regarding, respected, provided, pending, according, barring, between, given, taken, including, owing etc.

## Sentences with Participial Prepositions

• His monthly salary is in six figures, excluding the incentives.
• All the listeners were in tears after listening to the touching story of a boy.
• I have spent around four hours on this project, including lunchtime.
• I will deliver you the quality content provided good payment is offered.
• She is interested in anything concerning new trends in the fashion industry.
• Considering the time invested, this piece turned out beautiful.
###### 38
• The mother said no to talking during the study hours.
• The cat kept following me through the garden.
• The teacher was asking questions regarding the topic discussed in the previous class.
• Chris was playing with his brother when he fell down the broken staircase.
• Assuming good economic growth in the future, you can take the risk to start this
• The court case of Mr. Batra is still pending.
• Given the exemplary services of this father, a job was offered to him on compassionate
grounds.
• You are supposed to use mobile phones during the flight.

## Disguised prepositions definition

Disguised prepositions are those prepositions which are not used in the sentences directly, but we use them in a disguised way. Their shorter forms are used. The examples of Disguised Prepositions are ‘a’ and ‘o’. Disguised preposition ‘a’ is shortened form of the preposition ‘on’ and similarly ‘o’ is the shortened form of the preposition ‘of’.

## EXAMPLE

Examples of disguised prepositions in sentences:

The ceremony will be held at 5 o’ clock.
We all went to a party.
In the first example, instead of saying ‘5 of the clock’, we have used disguised form of the
preposition of.
In the second example, instead of saying ‘went on partying’, we have used abbreviation of
the preposition on and disguised the preposition as ‘a’. Hence these are Disguised
Prepositions

## Phrase prepositions definition

Phrasal Prepositions are groups of words or phrases that join the noun or pronoun in a sentence, to the remainder of the sentence. These groups of words express a single idea by coming together as a unit.

## EXAMPLE

Words that come under the category of Phrasal Prepositions are as follows: In addition to, by means of, in spite of, according to, owing to, in favour of, etc.

He couldn’t pass the test, owing to his lack of knowledge of English Grammar.
She made it to the other side of the world, in spite of all the difficulties.
In the first example, the group of words ‘owing to’ is joining the two sentences with each
other and is a phrase. Likewise, the group of words ‘in spite of’ is also a phrase and is
working as a preposition. Hence, these are Phrasal Prepositions.

Implications of prepositions:
Prepositions are tricky little beasts. The relative shortness of the words (most are six letters or under) and their often misplaced role in the overall scheme of things (why should prepositions be less important than nouns, adjectives or verbs?) mean that we should treat them carefully and perhaps give them more time in the classroom than is usually the case.

While prepositions are limited in number, they are important because they act as vital markers to the structure of a sentence; they mark special relationships between persons, objects, and locations. For this reason, we should think carefully about how we incorporate the teaching and learning of prepositions into our classes

## 3.4 CONTEXT CLUES

Antonym definition
Sometimes, the best way to understand something is to understand what not to do or what something isn’t. In the same way, an antonym, or an opposite, can convey meaning. If you point out the differences, you can come to understand each component better.

## EXAMPLE

• Marty is gregarious, unlike his brother who is quiet and shy.
• Attempting to avoid the accident was futile; it was impossible for either of them to stop
in time.
• This painting of the landscape is picturesque, while the one of the old house is just
plain ugly.
• The feral cat would not let us pet him, unlike our friendly cat.
• Our sweltering summer days were quickly replaced by the cold flashes of fall.
• She was virtuous, unlike her evil and conniving brother.

Synonym definition
The most basic, and perhaps helpful, type of context clues are synonyms. If you can’t decipher a meaning, adding a few synonyms, or words with similar meanings, is a surefire way to point to a word’s meaning.

Appositive definition
Appositives are nouns, noun phrases, or noun clauses that rename a noun that comes just before them. Remember that an appositive can be a single word or several words.

###### 41

Appositives can be essential or nonessential. If the appositive is necessary for the meaning of the sentence, then it is essential. This means that it cannot be left out. If the appositive is not essential for the meaning of the sentence, and it could be left out, then it is nonessential. Nonessential appositives should be set apart from the sentence with commas. Essential appositives are not set off with commas.

## Examples of Sentences with Appositives with Explanation

1. My sister Jane is 27 years old. (Jane renames sister)

2. My mom, who is a nurse, drives a red car. (Who is a nurse renames mom, but it is not essential for the meaning of the sentence.)

3. The boy who painted this picture is named Kevin. (Who painted this picture renames boy, and it is essential for the meaning of the sentence.)
Sarah’s dog Rover is a golden retriever. (Rover renames dog.)

## Direct definition

A synonym is one way to understand meaning. But, how about a straightforward definition? It’s hard to misconstrue a context clue when the actual definition is provided.

## EXAMPLE

• The manager wanted a weekly inspection, which is a methodical examination of all the
equipment.
• Diane was lethargic; she didn’t have the energy to get out of bed.
• The dates are listed in chronological order; they start at the beginning and end with the
last event.
• The doctor’s writing was utterly illegible; no one could read those scribbles.
• She heard the cry of the banshee, a spirit that alludes to the death of a family member.
• He knew his future was precarious and likely to fall apart.

## 4.1 The Largest Bee

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about The Largest Bee. Seven sentences have been
removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-
7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 1

A walnut-sized bee with a wingspan of two and a half inches – roughly the length of a human thumb – may appear to be something from a science fiction film. The Megachile pluto, also known as Wallace’s Giant Bee, is a genuine insect found in Indonesian woods, not a product of a movie writer’s mind. While a few dead bees have been recovered throughout the years, scientists have not observed a living one since 1981.

(1) _________________________ Wallace’s Giant Bee, which is 1.5 inches long and four times the size of a honey bee, takes its name from Alfred Russel Wallace. While touring the Indonesian island of Bacan in 1858, the British naturalist was the first to document the existence of the enormous insect.

###### 45

Wallace characterized the bee as “a big black wasp-like insect, having enormous teeth resembling a stag-beetle” in his notes. (2)_________________________ He saw that the clever female bees made their nests within active arboreal termite mounds and coated them with wood chips and sticky tree resin to keep out invading termites. Many scientists have tried to find the unusual bug since then, but have had no luck. Under the Search for Lost Species program, Global Wildlife Conservation listed Wallace’s Giant Bee as one of the top 25 most sought species in 2015. (3)_________________________ However, his
quest to track down the elusive species in the wild did not begin until 2015. It was when he was shown a preserved specimen of the bug by University of Princeton ecologist Eli Wyman. “It was more wonderful than I could have dreamed, even in death,” the
photographer writes on his blog. (4)_________________________

The scientists, accompanied by two local guides, spent the days hiking through the hot and humid jungles in search of termite mounds and inspecting them for 20 minutes for evidence of the bug. On the fifth and last day of their journey, just as the crew was ready to give up. One of the guides discovered a termite mound approximately eight feet above the ground on a tree. (5)_________________________ What’s more, the inside of the mound seemed to be moist and sticky. Wyman invited Bolt to have a look since he was almost certain he had discovered the bee’s nest. “I went up next, and my headlight
glinted on the most incredible object I’d ever laid my eyes on,” the photographer adds. (6) ________________________ It was really stunning to see this ‘flying bulldog’ of an insect that we weren’t sure existed anymore, and to have genuine confirmation right there in the wild.”

(7) ________________________________ “I hope this finding will stimulate future study that will give us a greater knowledge of the life history of this extremely unique bee and guide any future attempts to conserve it from extinction,” adds Wyman, who realized a lifelong dream of witnessing a rare species in the wild.

###### 46

4.1 The Largest Bee

## 4.2 White Grizzly Bear in Canada

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about White Grizzly Bear in Canada. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7).There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 2

With less than 55,000 grizzly bears living in the wild in North America, simply spotting one is reason for excitement. As a result, you can imagine Cara Clarkson and her family’s joy when they encountered two juvenile grizzlies grazing alongside the Trans- Canada Highway near Banff, Canada, on April 26, 2020. “We thought we were really fortunate since white grizzly bears are unheard of,” Cara told St. Albert Today.

###### 48

(1) __________________________ The encounter was a wonderful delight for the Director of Operations at the Rimrock Resort Hotel in Banff, who posted her photos and video on social media, considering that the family was out celebrating two birthdays — her husband Tyler’s on April 26 and her three-year-old son Beau’s on April 24. According to Mike Gibeau, a carnivore specialist for Parks Canada and an adjunct professor in the Geography Department at the University of Calgary, the Clarksons and other motorists who have encountered the white bear — now known as Nakoda, which means “friend” or “ally” in
the native language of the area’s three Aboriginal tribes — are extremely fortunate. White grizzly bears are exceedingly rare, despite the fact that there are a few types of white bears that can be discovered, such as Kermode bears in British Columbia and polar bears in the Arctic.

“(2)__________________________I’ve only ever seen an extremely, really blond grizzly, never a white one, “Gibeau said to St. Albert Today. The specialist does not believe the grizzly’s white fur is due to albinism, a condition in which an animal fails to generate melanin, a pigment group responsible for skin, hair, and eye color. Instead, he believes the bear’s unique coloration is caused by a recessive gene.

(3)___________________________However, if both parents have the same recessive gene – in this example, one that causes white fur – it can be handed on to the offspring. Despite the fact that this is the first time the world has seen a white grizzly, park officials have been aware of Nakoda’s presence since 2018. According to Jon Stuart-Smith, a Parks Canada wildlife management specialist for Lakes Louise, Yoho, and Kootenay, his team first spotted the bear and its sibling as cubs traveling with their mother, who they tracked from 2012 to 2017 as part of a Canadian Pacific-Parks Canada research project to analyze the region’s grizzly bear mortality rates.

###### 49

(4) __________________________ The wise bears, who travel between Banff and Yoho National Parks, came to the location earlier this year but departed when they realized the grains had been cleaned and there was nothing left to eat. The park managers never publicized the unusual bear for fear of it being incessantly pursued by fans hoping to obtain a sight of it. “These unusual-looking creatures are chased relentlessly by photographers, therefore the less
we say about them, the better,” Gibeau said in an e-mail to The Guardian. The experts were correct, as it turned out. (5) _________________________ To safeguard the animals, concerned officials declared a 10-kilometer no-stopping zone along a portion of the Trans-Canada Highway where two baby grizzlies and numerous black bears were spotted eating dandelions and berries on June 18, 2020. Violators will face fines ranging from $85 (115 CAD) to$18,500. (25,000 CAD). “We hope this advises tourists to travel carefully in the region and prevents these bears from being hit on the highway,” Stuart-Smith added.

(6) ______________________________ “At this stage, we want them to acquire a
tendency to avoid humans, particularly automobiles and the roadway,” Stuart-Smith added. “They’re just young bears figuring out how to make a livelihood on the terrain, and they haven’t had enough time to realize they should avoid the highway and people.” Officials hope that the three-and-a-halfyear- old grizzly siblings will ultimately migrate to higher elevations and vanish into the forests, where they may live a long and healthy life. (7)___________________________.

###### 50

4.2 The Largest Bee

## 4.3. Rare Black Leopard

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Rare Black Leopard. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 3

While any sighting of the highly endangered leopard is noteworthy, the sighting of a black leopard is especially noteworthy. The specimen, which was recently photographed in Central Kenya by San Diego Zoo researchers and British wildlife photographer Will Burrard-Lucas, is noteworthy since it is the first scientific evidence of such a species in Africa in over a century. Previously, the sole documented sighting was a picture taken in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia in 1909.

###### 52

(1)______________________________The disease is similar to albinism in that it creates an excess of mmelanin, which causes an animal’s hair or skin to turn black. The woods of Southeast Asia are home to 11 percent of leopards among nine subspecies that are melanistic. “It’s considered that melanism provides greater concealment in such areas, providing predators an edge when it comes to hunting,” explains Vincent Naude, project coordinator for the organization Panthera’s leopard genetic forensics study.

(2)___________________________The presence of the Kenyan black leopard was discovered in late 2017, when Ambrose Letolulai, a local leopard environmentalist, was attempting to comprehend the inhabitants’ everyday struggle with the surrounding wild animals. An elder recalled seeing a black leopard in a conservancy area in central Kenya’s Laikipia County during one talk in September. When Letolulai told San Diego Zoo biologist Nicholas Pilfold about the conversation, the scientist realized they were on to something unique. The Fish and Wildlife Service is now studying the rush darter in the Turkey Creek watershed to better understand its natural history, location, and population ecology. (3)___________________________ Rush darter populations are widely distant from one another. Historically, rush darters were found in three watersheds: Winston County’s Clear Creek system, Jefferson County’s Turkey Creek system’s Tapawingo/PennySprings region, and Etowah County’s Little Cove Creek system. However, just two rush darter populations survive in the Clear Creek and Turkey Creek systems at the moment.

(4)____________________________The rush darter’s type habitat is a roadside ditch on a roadway that runs through Pinson and the Tapawingo/Penny Springs region. This vital ecosystem might be quickly destroyed by a single catastrophic catastrophe. The vermilion darter can only be found in 7.2 miles (11.5 kilometres) of Turkey Creek’s main stem and the lowermost reaches of two tributaries within the Turkey Creek drainage.

###### 53

(5)_________________________In 1998, a county prison was proposed for construction near Turkey Creek, with direct sedimentation consequences on the vermilion darter and the watershed. This worried the local community, prompting it to create START in order torally support for Turkey Creek’s protection (Society to Advance the Resources of Turkey Creek). Following talks between Jefferson County and START, the prison was relocated to a place beyond the watershed.

(6)________________________________The Service met with watershed stakeholders, including START and Jefferson County, to discuss the vermilion darter’s distribution, threats, and status. START engaged in numerous “Partners for Fish and Wildlife Projects’’ targeted at reducing nonpoint source pollution in Turkey Creek in order to reduce risks to the vermilion darter. Furthermore, the Black Warrior and Cahaba River Land Trust, in collaboration with the
Service, identified key areas within the watershed for prospective acquisition by the
Jefferson County Greenways Project. (7)__________________________________It also has a healthy population of watercress darters. The Service assisted in the restoration of this region. The Service signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Jefferson County in 2001, which will notify us of any county projects that may have an impact on the vermilion darter’s habitat.

###### 54

4.3 The Largest Bee

## 4.4. A Sunflower

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about A Sunflower. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 4

Many of the 27 plants and 13 animals classified as endangered or vulnerable in New Mexico can be considered desert indigenous. Two of our state’s lesser-known animals, the Pecos sunflower and the Socorro isopod, show the sorts of problems these species face.

###### 56

The Pecos sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) is an annual that resembles the common sunflower found along roadsides and in other disturbed regions in North America. (1)_________________________ It blooms from July to October, a month later than the common sunflower. The only sunflower in the Southwest that requires permanent wetlands for life is the Pecos sunflower. It thrives on salty soils in springs, marshes, and on the borders of lakes and streams. (2)_____________________________The Pecos sunflower may be found in 25 locations throughout five states, including New Mexico and Texas. It grows near Grants, along with the Rio San Jose, in and around Santa Rosa, and along the Pecos River from just north of Roswell to just north of Dexter in New Mexico. It may be found in Texas just north of Fort Stockton and in Balmorhea.  . (3)____________________________The number of plants at each location ranges from a few to thousands. Much of the marsh habitat on which the Pecos sunflower is dependent has been lost or damaged. Many springs, notably in Texas, are now dry as a result of irrigation groundwater pumping. (4)________________________Many wetlands have been drained and filled as a result of nonnative tamarisk or salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) invasion. Wetland losses continue, but at a slower pace than in the past. Livestock will also consume the Pecos sunflower, which can wipe out a population if grazing is constant.

(5)_____________________________Six sites are administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, or National Park Service; one is a state park; four are managed by the municipality of Santa Rosa; one is managed by the Pueblo of Laguna