MASTERING
SELECTIVE
CLOZE PASSAGE

FIRST EDITION

SCHOLARLY

EMPOWERING THE FUTURE

Steve Xu

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EDITOR'S NOTE

My name is Steve and I set out on a mission
to truly empower kids in their educational
endeavours. Having been through all the
rigorous tests myself and in the education
industry for over a decade I have come to
understand the fundamental factors
required for students to excel in their
education.


I know you will find this book valuable and
if you would like to speak to my team and I,
reach out to us here:


https://scholarlytraining.com/


Regards, Steve.

PREFACE

The Cloze passage (otherwise known as gapped texts) is one of the most enigmatic aspects of New South Wales OC and Selective Exams. Its cryptic code can only be broken by the most diligent of students who are well-versed in the subjects of scientific, global, historical and cultural texts. Unlike traditional reading comprehension, the cloze passage is open-ended in its nature and hinges on the ability of students to carefully discern between 7 options (as opposed to the traditional 4) through multitudinous paradigms of logical deduction, comprehension and grammatical syntax.


In addition, the students are required to take these standardized examinations under high time constraint and precision. Since the Cambridge style transition texts were launched during the selective exam of New South Wales 2021, parents, kids and even instructors had been confused about how to deal with these cloze passage type tests swiftly and accurately.


Surely having an accessible, reliable, gold standard guide should therefore be a necessity for those striving to learn, improve or fine tune their skill-set ahead of the OC or Selective exams. Having coached thousands of students at Scholarly Prep for these exams and achieving exemplary results, it is only fair for me to spread my knowledge to those who seek for it. Therefore, this book you see here is a structured, easy to understand, and comprehensive instruction manual knowledge on how to break down cloze passage evaluation questions.


In this book, every kind of in-depth evaluation was divided into chapters to enhance students’ skills. Beyond these specific training resources, I have identified and described tactics and techniques on how cloze passages can be approached with precision and efficiency, along with other diverse complexities in the different types of passages on which students can be examined to increase their awareness. 


It is worth highlighting that author’s true and original meaning can be so subjective not only in a cloze passage but in English as one language that it can be easily misunderstood by students of all ages. It is known that OC and selective examination question creators exploit this to screen out students who do not completely comprehend the questions by injecting crucial words.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Identifying the Objects

1.1 Point vs Logic ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.2 Compare vs Contrast ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2

1.3 Problem vs. Solution…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5

1.4 Cause vs Effect………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7

1.5 Question vs Answer …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9

1.6 Extra Tips: Consideration when analyzing the passage …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10

1.7 Extra Tips: Considerations when you are looking at the options for the answer ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11

II. Chronological Order of the Passage

2.1 Feature Articles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

2.2 Historical Texts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14

2.3 Scientific Texts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….15

2.4 Biographical Texts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16

2.5 Political Texts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17

2.6 Instructional Texts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18

III. Microstructure

3.1 Pronouns…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

3.2 Conjunctions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29

3.3 Prepositions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34

3.4Context Clues………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………41

IV. Flora and Fauna

4.1 The Largest Bee…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45

4.2 White Grizzly Bear in Canada………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

4.3 Rare Black Leopard…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

4.4 A Sunflower…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..56

4.5 A Species of Fish…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..59

4.6How Koalas Beat the Heat…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..62

4.7A species of Parrot…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65

V. Global Studies

5.1 Melbourne Street Art…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45

5.2 Travel Guide to Chobe, Botswana………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

5.3 To Antartica or Not…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

5.4 Baku – Azerbaijan’s Capital…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..56

5.5 Supporting Madagascar Conservation and Community…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..59

5.6 A week in Bali………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….62

5.7 Go or No Go to Myanmar…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65

VI. History and Culture

6.1 Christmas Traditions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..89

6.2 2016 Olympics Athletes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..100

Identifying the Context

UNIT 1

1.1 POINT AND LOGIC

  • Definition – Several details of something to give the reader a mental picture are provided by the author. The author then backs up these claims with evidence or reasoning.
  • Clues – many adjectives, characteristics, or examples

It is one of the most important context clues strategies. Reading has to make sense, so when we come to a word we don’t understand, we make inferences based on our prior knowledge and experiences (our schema) and based on the clues the author provides. Students are asked to make a good guess, using all of the clues available.

1.2 COMPARE AND CONTRAST

  • Definition – Similarities and differences between persons, things, concepts, or ideas are discussed by the author.
  • Likeness and differences are discussed, also, both, in contrast, etc.

Use transitional words when writing a compare-contrast assignment to show the relationship between your ideas and to connect your main points.

Transitional Words showing Comparison:

  • In comparison
  • Equally
  • Likewise
  • In the same way
  • Equivalently
  • Similarly
  • Comparably
  • In a similar manner
  • moreover

Transitional Words showing Contrast:

  • But
  • In contrast
  • Otherwise
  • Conversely
  • On the contrary
  • However
  • On the other hand
  • Otherwise
  • Rather
  • Although
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Organizing a Compare-Contrast Paragraph

There are two main ways that can organize your compare-contrast paragraph:

  • Block Method
    When using the block method, begin by discussing all the main points about the first topic you are discussing, then move on and make all the points you want to make about the second topic (and then the third topic, etc., if you are comparing and contrasting more than two things). For example, if you were comparing academic writing standards to professional writing standards, you would talk about academic writing in the first part and then move on to talk about professional writing in the second part.
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Point-by-Point Method
When using point-by-point method, arrange your paragraph according to the main points, rather than by topic. The paragraph will discuss each of your main points, but include discussions of both topics as they relate to each of your points. For example, if you were using a point-by-point method to compare and contrast academic writing and professional writing, you might talk about similarities and
differences regarding their paragraph structure, point of view, and tone.

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EXAMPLE

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1.3 PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

  • Definition – Information about a problem and explanations of one or
    more solutions are given by the author.
  • Clues – a problem is solved or needs solving, problem, solution, solve Problem-solution essays consider the problems of a particular situation and give solutions to those problems. 

They are in some ways similar to cause and effect essays, especially in terms of structure (see below). Problem-solution essays are actually a sub-type of another type of essay, which has the following four components:

  • Situation
  • Problem
  • Solution
  • Evaluation

The two types of structure, block and chain, are shown in the diagram below. This is for a short essay, which includes the ‘situation’ in the introduction and ‘evaluation’ in the conclusion. A longer essay, for example one of around 1,000 words, with citations, would probably have these two sections as separate paragraphs in the main body

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1.4 CAUSE AND EFFECT

  • Definition – The author describes an incident, then an event or several
    events (cause) and the events that follow (effect).
  • Clues – cause, because, affect, as a result of, due to, reason A cause and effect essay looks at the reasons (or causes) for something, then discusses the results ( or effects).

For this reason, cause and effect essays are sometimes referred to as reason and result essays. They are one of the most common forms of organization in academic writing. Sometimes the whole essay will be cause and effect, though sometimes this may be only part of the whole essay. It is also possible, especially for short exam essays, that only the causes or the effects, not both, are discussed. See the examples below.

  • Discuss the causes and effects of global warming [’cause and effect’ essay]
  • Explain the high death rate in Chernobyl [’causes’ only essay]
  • Discuss the WTO and its effects on the Chinese economy [‘effects’ only essay]
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1.5 QUESTION AND ANSWER

  • Definition – the author probes a question that relates to the facts
    presented, and provides a resolution to the given question.
  • Clues – question marks, keywords used in the question seen in later parts of the passage. 

A question and answer essay easily grabs the reader’s attention and sets up the point of the piece immediately. Using this strategy demonstrates a firm stance. Whether questions are answered directly or indirectly, questions bring your readers closer to the text by making them feel part of the discourse. A question and answer essay can thus make a flat point more interesting.

EXAMPLE

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1.6 EXTRA TIPS: CONSIDERATIONS WHEN ANALYSING THE PASSAGE

  • Why did the author mention this? What purpose does it serve?
  • Where does it lead to?
  • What clues can I pick up on to lead me to the next point? Did it mention a certain subject matter that needs to be explained?
  • What is the main point the author is trying to make?
  • How will he/she develop this point through the rest of the article?

For this reason, cause and effect essays are sometimes referred to as reason and result essays. They are one of the most common forms of organization in academic writing. Sometimes the whole essay will be cause and effect, though sometimes this may be only part of the whole essay. It is also possible, especially for short exam essays, that only the causes or the effects, not both, are discussed. See the examples below.

Evaluate on the implications of these tips

Analyzing a literary work is the point at which you begin to fill in the pieces of the story a bit more. You explore setting, characters, main points more deeply while giving consideration to the author’s style and language. These questions allow the reader to look more closely at the details that fit the passage together. When you pay particular attention to details that relate to the central idea of the passage, this helps you to understand the entirety of the passage.

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1.7 EXTRA TIPS: CONSIDERATIONS WHEN YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE OPTIONS FOR THE ANSWER

  • Does it follow the inverted pyramid structure? (BROAD OR SPECIFIC)
  • Is it too broad or specific?
  • If we look at the OREO (neighbouring sentences), does it mention the
    same points or continue/introduce?
  • How do the sentences fit in the chronology? (look at the dates- that’s
    key)
  • Try to arrange the sentences in sequential order. You can compare how
    they fit with each other. ESPECIALLY IF THEY ARE SIMILAR

Evaluate on the implications of these tips

There has to be careful consideration when one is faced with several options that may or may not lead to the correct answer. In this case, it may be helpful if you are guided with these questions. You have to carefully consider the answer choices and whether or not they relate to the question. Also, one has to take a closer look at the neighboring sentences,whether they may be leading to the correct answer.

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Chronological Order of the Passages

UNIT 2

2.1 FEATURE ARTICLES

  • Headline
  • Introduction – Providing information about the topics and characters
  • Credible source – Quotes from experts, experiences about the topic
  • Explanation – Commentary, more quotes, opinions, discussion
  • Conclusion – Providing a final deduction, call to action.

Feature articles are known for their eye-catching headers!

So, how do you write catchy headlines?

  • Use emotive language
  • Keep it short and shappy
  • Directly address the reader
  • Use adjectives/adverbs
  • Tell readers what your content is about
  • Ask question 
  • Give an imperative

The introduction needs to “hook” the readers “The set the scene and draw interest from the audience.”
The body of your feature is where you write all of your juicy information. “This is where the story unfolds and share your opinions.” Show don’t tell is a commonly taught writing technique. It requires students to describe and ‘show’ what is happening instead of simply recounting (Telling). Remember, a feature article is much more colorful than a news report.

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How to ‘show not tell’:

  • Write vivid descriptions and imagery.
  • Rely on the different senses to describe (sight, smell, hearing, taste)
  • Don’t state emotions.
  • Use strong verbs and nouns, instead of adverbs and adjectives.

Be creative!

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2.2 HISTORICAL TEXTS

  • Introduction of historical phenomena (STATE, ANECDOTES, QUOTES, SPECIFIC INSIGHTFUL EVENT)
  • Mystery/Point of interest (1 specific subject matter)- Murder, Election, Mystery
  • Exploration into the point of interest (CHRONOLOGY)- 1500s, 1600s, 1700s… (evolution of the process)
  • Quotes from Key Academic Experts on findings/discoveries (KEY PEOPLE)
  • Results of research
  • How does history influence the world nowadays? Events run in the pasthow do they affect people in the present day

Historical text informs the reader about key events and important people from the past It gives the reader an understanding of what led up to the important events in history Examples of historical text are: nonfiction history books, autobiographies, biographies, historical research websites, diaries, social studies/history textbooks, past newspapers, encyclopedias.

EXAMPLE

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2.3 SCIENTIFIC TEXTS

  • Sizzling Start/Interesting Event
  • Introduction of species or subject (plants, animals etc.)
  • Description of locality, habitat, origins, demographics (age, gender) and
    special facts such as (endangerment/extinction)
  • Problem/Mystery surrounding the phenomena (anecdotes- personal
    experiences)
  • Process/chronology (order of time)/instructions of solving the problemdescription of scientific experiment (hypothesis, method, findings,
    conclusion) (DATES, YEARS)
  • Stacking of different dates and the evolution of the scientific experiment
  • Quotes from different scientific experts on the genesis, process,
    success/failure of the scientific experiment
  • RESULTS and CONCLUSION
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2.4 BIOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

Scientific text informs the reader about concepts in science. It gives the reader a greater
understanding of the world around them. Topics may include nature, animals, plants, the
scientific method, space, chemistry, geology, the human body, and weather. Examples of
scientific text: nonfiction science books, science magazines, science textbooks, science blogs,
science research websites, scientific journals.

EXAMPLE

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1. Orientation – Introduction on the subject and explanation on his/her
significance
2.  Life events in chronological order – Childhood, education, career,
achievements

3.  Summary – Emphasising his/her significance and notable contributions The purpose of a biography is to share the life of another person with an audience.

An author may choose to write a biography because they find the subject’s story to be interesting or to have themes that apply to life today. Some authors choose to write a biography due to a lack of information about an interesting subject, or to update the public with facts that an existing biography may have missed. Biographical stories can be inspiring—highlighting the achievements of a particular figure, pointing out ways the subject overcame hardship—giving the readers a sense of encouragement. Biographies can also serve as cautionary tales, warning readers on who not to become.

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2.5 POLITICAL TEXTS

1.  POINT – e.g. ban child labour as it strips children of their education (future)- trapped in the cycle of poverty forever
2.  EVIDENCE – e.g. RESEARCH that backs up your point- 215 million child labourers- illiteracy)
3.  CONSEQUENCE e.g. PAIN in the future- read/write- barred from skilled employment- countries would be dependent on western nations forever, economic development is stunted.

4.  SOLUTION – e.g. implementation strategies, international treaties, protect rights of children, increase the accountability of local police forces, reduce corruption, punishments for companies that use child labour etc.

A political essay will address social ideas, social theories, societal change, analysis and psychology. Political essays have a variety of topics but they usually have something to do with areas that impact people. The following are some sample topics: drug abuse and its effects on society, welfare and the government, economy and history, crime and social controls, the evolution of society out of hardships, crime on the Internet, changes in society and social
values.

EXAMPLE

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2.6 INSTRUCTIONAL TEXTS

1. Broad headline (+specific anecdote or what is happening around the world)

2. Specific anecdote (human experience or example – might include a quote)

3. Description of problem/mystery

4. Ways to solve the problem/mystery

5. Different ways to solve the problem/mystery and the effectiveness of those ways Conclusion

Instructional essays — also called how-to or process-analysis essays — tell the reader how to do something. A good instructional essay will cover all necessary steps to accomplish a task, learn a skill or understand an activity or process. The essay should clearly indicate what the reader will learn or accomplish. Choose a process you know well, keep the audience in mind, use straightforward language and don’t skip steps when writing an instructional essay.

EXAMPLE

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Microstructure

UNIT 3

3.1 PRONOUNS

Pronoun Definition: A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns refer to either a noun that has already been mentioned or to a noun that does not need to be named specifically.

Personal Pronouns Definition

A pronoun that expresses a distinction of person

EXAMPLE

A personal pronoun is a short word we use as a simple substitute for the proper name of a person. Each of the English personal pronouns shows us the grammatical person, gender, number, and case of the noun it replaces. I, you, he, she, it, we they, me, him, her, us, and them are all personal pronouns. Personal pronouns are the stunt doubles of grammar; they stand in for the people (and perhaps animals) who star in our sentences. They allow us to speak and write with economy because they enable us to avoid repeating cumbersome proper nouns all the live-long day. First-, Second-, and Third-Person Pronouns A personal pronoun can be in one of three “persons.” A first-person pronoun refers to the speaker, a second-person pronoun refers to the person being spoken to, and a third-person pronoun refers to the person being spoken of. For each of these three grammatical persons, there is a plural as well.

Demonstrative pronouns definition

That, this, these and those are demonstrative pronouns. They take the place of a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned. 

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Here is a letter with no return address. Who could have sent this? What a fantastic idea! This is the best thing I’ve heard all day. If you think gardenias smell nice, try smelling these. That is used for singular items that are far away. Those is used for multiple items that are far away. Again, the distance can be physical or metaphorical. A house like that would be a nice place to live. Some new flavors of soda came in last week. Why don’t you try some of those? Those aren’t swans, they’re geese.

Interrogative pronouns definition

An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun which is used to make asking questions easy. There are just five interrogative pronouns. Each one is used to ask a very specific question or indirect question. Some, such as “who” and “whom,” refer only to people. Others can be used to refer to objects or people. Once you are familiar with interrogative pronouns, you’ll find that it’s very easy to use them in a variety of situations.

EXAMPLE

The five interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and whose.

  • What – Used to ask questions about people or objects. Examples:

1. What do you want for dinner?
2. I wonder what we’re doing tomorrow.
3. What is your friend’s name?
4. What time are we supposed to be there?

  • Which – Used to ask questions about people or objects. Examples:

1. Which color do you prefer?

2. Which of these ladies is your mother?

3. She asked which train to take?

4. Which seat would you like?

 

  • Who – Used to ask questions about people. Examples:

1. Who is that?

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2. Who was driving the car?
3. I’m wondering who will be at the party.
4. Who is going to take out the trash?
 
  • Whom – This interrogative pronoun is rarely seen these days, but when it shows up, it
    is used to ask questions about people. Examples:

1. Whom did you speak to?

2. Whom do you prefer to vote for?

3. You should ask whom to call.

4. Whom do you live with?

  • Whose – Used to ask questions about people or objects, always related to possession.
    Examples:

1. Whose sweater is this?

2. Whose parents are those?

3. I wonder whose dog knocked our garbage can over.

4. Whose phone is that?

In some cases, interrogative pronouns take on the suffix –ever. A few can also take on the oldfashioned suffix –soever, which is rarely seen in writing these days. For example:

  • Whatever
  • Whatsoever
  • Whichever
  • Whoever
  • Whosoever
  • Whomever
  • Whomsoever
  • Whosever
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Interrogative pronouns are very easy to remember and use. Memorize them to make things even simpler.

EXAMPLE

Sentences containing interrogative pronouns are always questions, so they always end with a question mark. In the following examples, interrogative pronouns have been italicized for ease of identification.

1. What do you want for your birthday?

2. Which shirt do you think looks better on me?

3. Who do you think will win the playoff game?

4. To whom are you speaking?

5. Whom socks are those?

 

Indefinite pronouns definition

The term indefinite pronouns means pronouns that do not refer to any person, amount, or thing. Indefinite pronouns can be singular, plural, or both, depending on the context. It is essential to pay close attention to whether the subject of the indefinite pronoun is singular or plural in order to make a subject and verb agreement.

EXAMPLE

  • SINGULAR

Anybody – Everybody – Somebody – Nobody
Each one – Anyone – Everyone – No one –Someone
Anything – Everything – Something – Nothing
Each – Either – Neither

EXAMPLES:
Nobody likes pizza. [Nobody matches the verb likes and is singular]
Everyone attends my party. [Everyone matches the verb attends and is singular]

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Something happens to my sister. [Something matches the verb happens and is singular] Each tree has roots. [Each matches the verb has and is singular]

  • PLURAL

Both-others-Few-Several-Many

  • EXAMPLES

Both of them graduate this semester. [Both refers to them and is plural]
Other students have a gift card. [Other refers to students and is plural]
Few parents read this article. [Few refers to parents and is plural]
Several road signs need to be removed. [Several refers to road signs and is plural]
Many employees like their jobs. [Many refers to employees and is plural]

  • SINGULAR/PLURAL

Most-More-All-Some-None

  • EXAMPLES:

Most of the hair is lost. [Most refers to hair and is singular]
Most of the blankets are dirty. [Most refers to blankets and is plural]
More of the product is found online. [More refers to product and is singular]
More of the baskets arrive at the store. [More refers to baskets and is plural]
All of the water has spilled. [All refers to water and is singular]

Distributive pronouns definition

Distributive Pronoun refers to person or thing. So this pronoun is always singular and we use it with singular noun and verb. We use this pronoun to describe all the members of the particular
group. The most common used distributive pronouns are:
Each, every, either, neither, everyone, non, no one, any

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EXAMPLE

• Each new day is different. (NOT Each new days are different.)
• Either girl can do that. (NOT Either girls can do that.)
• Neither answer is correct. (NOT Neither answers is correct.) (NOT Neither answers are
correct.)
• Each of the answers is correct. (NOT Each of the answer is correct.)
• Neither of the girls can do that. (NOT Either of the girl can do that.)
• None of the three answers is correct. (NOT Neither of the three answers is correct.)
• We invited several friends, but none came. (NOT but neither came.)
• You can take any of the three shirts. (NOT You can take either of the three shirts.)

Possessive pronouns definition

Possessive pronouns come in two flavors: limiting and absolute. My, your, its, his, her, our, their and whose are used to show that something belongs to an antecedent.

EXAMPLE

• Each new day is different. (NOT Each new days are different.)
• Either girl can do that. (NOT Either girls can do that.)
• Neither answer is correct. (NOT Neither answers is correct.) (NOT Neither answers are
correct.)
• Each of the answers is correct. (NOT Each of the answer is correct.)
• Neither of the girls can do that. (NOT Either of the girl can do that.)
• None of the three answers is correct. (NOT Neither of the three answers is correct.)
• We invited several friends, but none came. (NOT but neither came.)
• You can take any of the three shirts. (NOT You can take either of the three shirts.)

Possessive pronouns definition

Possessive pronouns come in two flavors: limiting and absolute. My, your, its, his, her, our, their and whose are used to show that something belongs to an antecedent.

EXAMPLE

Sarah is working on her application. Just put me back on my bike. The students practiced their presentation after school.
The absolute possessive pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, ours, and theirs. The absolute forms can be substituted for the thing that belongs to the antecedent.
Are you finished with your application? Sarah already finished hers. The blue bike is mine. I practiced my speech and the students practiced theirs.
Some possessive pronouns are easy to mix up with similar-looking contractions. Remember, possessive personal pronouns don’t include apostrophes.

Reciprocal pronouns definition

A reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun which is used to indicate that two or more people are

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carrying out or have carried out an action of some type, with both receiving the benefits or consequences of that action simultaneously. Any time something is done or given in return, reciprocal pronouns are used. The same is true any time mutual action is expressed.

EXAMPLE

There are only two reciprocal pronouns. Both of them allow you to make sentences simpler. They are especially useful when you need to express the same general idea more than once.

  • Each other
  • One another

Reciprocal pronouns are easy to use. When you want to refer to two people, you will normally use “each other.” When referring to more than two people, for example the students in a lecture hall, you will normally use “one another.”

EXAMPLE

Reciprocal pronouns help prevent repetition within sentences. In the following examples, reciprocal pronouns have been italicized for ease of identification.

1. Maria and Juan gave each other gold rings on their wedding day.

2. Maria and Juan kissed each other at the end of the ceremony.

3. Terry and Jack were talking to each other in the hallway.

4. We give each other gifts during the holidays.

5. The students congratulated one another after giving practice speeches.

6. The kids spent the afternoon kicking the ball to one another. 

7. The defendants blamed one another for the crime they were charged with. 

Relative pronouns definition

The relative pronouns are: who, whom, whose, which, and that. Relative pronouns introduce subordinate clauses functioning as adjectives. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive subordinate clauses, and do not use commas to set off restrictive clauses.

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The choice of relative pronouns is determined by the way the pronoun is used and the noun or pronoun to which it refers. Who, which, and that take verbs that agree with their antecedents.

The Function of Relative Pronouns

The function of a relative pronoun is to head (or introduce) an adjective clause. An adjective clause follows a noun:

To identify it.
For example:
The man who won the lottery is outside.
(The adjective clause (highlighted) identifies the man.)(2) To tell us something interesting
about it.
For example:
Inspector Smith, who won the lottery, is outside.
(The adjective clause (highlighted) tells us something interesting about Inspector Smith.)
Relative pronouns example
Here are some simple examples:
That The dog that stole the pie is back. (The relative pronoun is bold. The adjective clause
is highlighted.)
Which My new dog, which I bought last year, loves green beans.
Who The person who bought his car found a 3-carat diamond under the seat.
Whom Our lawyer, whom we employed for over a year, was related to the complainant.
Whose The young girl whose cat scratched our sofa has offered to replace the cushions

Intensive pronouns definition

An intensive pronoun is almost identical to a reflexive pronoun, but their functions differ. Intensive pronouns are used to add emphasis to the subject or antecedent of the sentence. You’ll usually find the intensive pronoun right after the noun or pronoun it’s modifying, but not necessarily.

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The intensive/reflexive pronouns include myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Furthermore, an intensive pronoun is defined as a pronoun that ends in “self” or “selves” and places emphasis on its antecedent. The intensive/reflexive pronouns include myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Furthermore, an intensive pronoun is defined as a pronoun that ends in “self” or “selves” and places emphasis on its antecedent.

The Difference Between Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

You can tell the difference between a reflexive pronoun and an intensive pronoun easily: intensive pronouns aren’t essential to a sentence’s basic meaning, whereas reflexive pronouns are. To differentiate an intensive pronoun from a reflexive pronoun, remove it from the sentence; if it’s an intensive pronoun, the sentence will still make sense. If the sentence no longer makes sense when the pronoun is removed, it’s a reflexive pronoun.

EXAMPLE

  • Himself
  • Herself
  • Yourself
  • Themselves
  • Ourselves

Intensive pronouns might not be necessary, but they serve the important function of making your writing more interesting as well as more meaningful, particularly in formal situations. Use them sparingly to ensure that the emphasis they provide isn’t lost.

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EXAMPLE

Intensive pronouns are used to add emphasis to statements. In the following examples, the
intensive pronouns have been italicized for ease of identification

1. Jesse wondered aloud whether he himself was the only one seeing what was
happening.

2. Maria knew that she herself could make a positive impact on the world, if only she put
her mind to it.

3. You yourself can easily transform your body: All it takes is a proper diet and plenty of
exercise.

4. The team knew that they themselves were responsible for playing their best.

5. We ourselves are the ones who make the greatest impact upon the world we live in.

Implications of pronouns:

Pronouns are an important part of speech because you use them frequently. And you should use pronouns because they serve important purposes. However, you need to make sure when you use pronouns, you’re using them effectively. The main purpose of a pronoun is “to replace” a noun. The noun a pronoun replaces is called an antecedent. Pronouns, though, need to be coordinated with their antecedents. If they’re not, confusion quickly emerges for readers.

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3.2 CONJUNCTIONS

Writing shorter sentences is an easy strategy for getting your thoughts down fast when you’re writing first drafts, and for avoiding grammar mistakes, but in the end it weakens the effectiveness of your writing. If you can combine simpler sentences into longer and more complex ones, your writing will have a lot more variety. It will also help you to communicate more content to your audiences—when you combine sentences, you can efficiently tell your readers about the relationships between different things

Conjunctions are parts of speech that connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. There are
three kinds of conjunctions: coordinating, paired, and subordinating.

Types of Conjunctions

1. Coordinating conjunctions connect words or phrases that serve the same grammatical purpose in a sentence. There are seven main coordinating conjunctions in English, which form the acronym FANBOYS:

2. Subordinating conjunctions join a subordinate clause to a main clause and establish a relationship between the two.

3. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to correlate two parts of a sentence of equal importance. Correlative conjunctions often connect two singular subjects with a singular verb, or two plural subjects with a plural verb.

4. Coordinating conjunctions definition

5. A coordinating conjunction is a word that joins two elements of equal grammatical rank and syntactic importance. They can join two verbs, two nouns, two adjectives, two phrases, or two independent clauses. The seven coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.

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Meet the Key Players: FANBOYS

The best way to remember the seven coordinating conjunctions is by using the acronym
FANBOYS:
For And Nor But Or Yet So

EXAMPLE

The most common coordinating conjunctions are summed up in the acronym FANBOYS. Here are the seven types of conjunctions in this category, using this particular mnemonic.

1. For: Using the conjunction “for” indicates a relationship between two main clauses by indicating that one clause is the reason that the other is happening. For example, you could say: “I want to go to the pizza parlor, for it is my birthday.

2. And: Using “and” indicates additional information of equal weight to the information provided in the first clause. For example, you could say “I went to the grocery store and bought snacks for the party.”

3. Nor: “Nor” connects two clauses that have negative modifiers. For example, it would be correct to say “I don’t get enough sleep, nor do I try.”

4. But: The conjunction “but” precedes information that opposes the first main clause in some way. For example, you could say: “I want to go outside, but I don’t have any sunblock.”

5. Or: “Or” indicates a difference between two equal options. For example, you could say “I can’t decide whether I want chocolate or vanilla.”

6. Yet: “Yet” introduces a new idea that contradicts the main clause. For example, you could say “I’m always eating, yet I’m always hungry.”

7. So: “So” joins two equally-weighted thoughts that imply cause and effect. For example, you could say, “There wasn’t a wait at the DMV, so I decided to go this morning.”

Correlative conjunctions definition

Correlative conjunctions are one of the three main types of conjunctions used in the English language to create smooth flow and reduce sentence fragments, along with coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to correlate

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two parts of a sentence of equal importance. Correlative conjunctions often connect two singular subjects with a singular verb, or two plural subjects with a plural verb. They apply a relation between two subjects or two verbs that act in tandem with each other

EXAMPLE

Correlative conjunction pairs work together to indicate a correlation between two subjects, express details, or provide clarity. They involve a first conjunction that connects to another part of the sentence with a second conjunction. Some common correlative conjunctions include the following pairs of words.

1. Both/and: Using “both” and “and” implies a correlation between two subjects that are performing the same action. An example of using these correlative conjunctions is: “We’ll both be leaving the party and taking one car.”

2. Either/or: Using “either” and “or” connects two positive statements of equal weight. For example, you could say: “My brother is either working upstairs or slacking off downstairs.”

3. Neither/nor: “Neither/nor” connects two negative statements of equal weight. For example, you could say: “I will neither watch the show nor read the book.”

4. Whether/or: “Whether/or” connects two possible actions of a subject. For example, you could say: “I was not sure whether you would show up or not.”

5. Not only/but also: “I’m not only hungry but also tired.”

6. Rather/than: “Rather/than” presents a subject’s preference for one thing over another. For example, you could say: “I would rather have coffee than tea.”

7. Such/that: “Such/that” connects two independent clauses in a way that applies a reason for an action. For example, you could say: “Such is the pain of my headache that I cannot get out of bed.”

Subordinating conjunctions definition

A subordinating conjunction is used in English grammar to connect a dependent clause (or subordinate clause) to an independent clause (or main clause) to make a complex sentence. These single words or phrases clarify specific information about the sentence like time, cause

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or condition. Clauses that begin with a subordinating conjunction cannot stand on their own as a complete sentence, and would simply be sentence fragments. Unlike coordinating conjunctions which link together two main clauses of equal grammatical rank, subordinating conjunctions connect two unequal clauses.

EXAMPLE

6 Types of Subordinating Conjunctions
There are dozens of common subordinating conjunctions, many of which serve to clarify or add information to the independent clause. Below is a list of subordinators you’ll often find in everyday conversation and literature.

1. Comparison: Some of the subordinating conjunctions that establish a comparison
between the main clause and the subordinate clause include “than,” “rather than,”
“instead of,” “whether,” “although,” “as much as,” and “whereas.”

2. Time: The subordinating conjunctions that specify time include “as soon as,” “once,”
“while,” “when,” “whenever,” “after,” “since,” “before,” “until,”and “now that.”

3. Concession: Coordinating conjunctions can add information that indicates an obstacle
to the main clause. Concession subordinating conjunctions include “although,” “lest,”
“though,” and “even though.”

4. Reason: Certain subordinating conjunctions can be tacked on to the beginning of a
subordinate clause to imply cause and effect with the main clause. These words
include “because,” “hence,” “since,” “lest,” “so,” “so that,” “in order to,” and “as.”

5. Place: Some of the subordinating conjunctions that reveal information about place in a
sentence include “where” or “wherever.”

6. Condition: Coordinating conjunctions can be used to indicate conditionality between a
main and subordinate clause with words like “in case,” “lest,” “only if,” “supposing,” or
“whether or not.”

Implications of conjunctions:
Using a conjunction properly depends on the type of conjunction you’re using and where it is in the sentence. Here are a few tips for using conjunctions properly

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1. Punctuate a subordinating conjunction according to its placement in the sentence. If the subordinating conjunction is at the beginning of a sentence, then use a comma following the dependent clause. If the subordinating conjunction comes after an independent clause, do not use a comma.

2. You usually omit a comma with a correlative conjunction. They apply relation between two words, phrases, or clauses, and do not need the extra punctuation.

3. You might or might not need to use a comma with a coordinating conjunction. If you are punctuating a sentence with a coordinating conjunction that pairs words or phrases, do not use a comma. If you are punctuating two or more independent clauses, use a comma before the conjunction.

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3.3 PREPOSITIONS

A preposition is a word that links other parts of speech together. In English grammar, a preposition (or prepositional phrase) explains the relationship (typical spatial or temporal) between various nouns and verbs, as well as some adjectives and adverbs. An example of a prepositional phrase is “under the table” where “under” is
the preposition and “the table” is the object of the preposition. If we use it in a larger noun phrase like “the carpet under the table,” we learn the relationship between the carpet and the table.

Types of Conjunctions

Per English grammar rules, there are four different types of prepositions.

1. Prepositions of place: This type of preposition explains the physical location of something. Examples include words like “on,” “above,” “under,” and “beside.”

2. Prepositions of time: This type of preposition explains where something is in time. Examples include words like “before,” “after,” “since,” and “during.”

3. Prepositions of direction/Phrasal Preposition: This type of preposition evokes a sense of direction. Examples include words like “toward,” “through,” and “past.”

4. Prepositions of agent/instrument (things): These prepositions describe relationships between verbs and nouns. Examples include words like “on,” “by,” “with,” and “without.

Simple Preposition definition

Simple prepositions are short words that we usually use before nouns or pronouns to indicate the relation of the noun to the rest of the phrase or sentence.
English prepositions form a very large list, over 150 in total, and they can be very tricky to master. The most common prepositions in English are simple prepositions like: at, in, on, by, to,

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for, until, since, before, after, about, from, with etc.

EXAMPLE

At- Weekends, any clock time (at 16:00), nights

  • Let’s meet at the weekend.
  • We saw you at 17:30 last Friday.
  • At night time, we love to party.

In – Any time of day, years, months and time periods (in the holidays, vacations)

  • I was born in 1990.
  • The festivals are held in July.
  • What are you going to do in the holidays/spring break?

On – days of the week

  • We’re going to see each other on Monday.
  • I caught up with her on Tuesday.

By – When someone or something is close to someone or something

  • The trees are by the river.
  • I live by my friend

Until – Marks the beginning or start of something until it ends

  • We have English lessons from 17:00 until 18:00 every day.
  • To – Strictly for telling the time
    I saw him from morning to night.
  • Let’s meet from 20:00 to 22:00

Before – Used to reference a time that was before another time

  • Before last Saturday I hadn’t known what my task was.

Since – To reference a point in time

  • He’s been living in the United States since 2009.

Ago – Used to reference a certain time in the past

  • Ten years ago we left Ireland to go to the United Kingdom.

For- Duration of time, a period of time.

  • Our daughter has been here all her life.
  • I’ve been living in London for eight years
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Simple prepositions of place (direction and position): at, in, on, by, from, to, through, across, above, over, under, into, onto, towards and next.

At – position at a point ; used for common names such as buildings, companies, etc.; used with collective or group activities

  • Meet me at the store.
  • I work at Burger king, at English reservoir, at the Empire State Building.

In- very large areas ; 3d space

  • I live in Spain/New York.
  • We’re in a room.

On – position on a line ; surface ; ‘attached to’

  • My pen is on the table.
  • I have a ring on my finger.

Double preposition definition

Double prepositions are a combination of two prepositions. Speaking about concept, a double preposition is similar to a compound preposition with one basic difference – a compound preposition is a combination of a simple preposition and a non preposition word while a double preposition is a combination of two simple prepositions made into one word. Some examples of double prepositions are – into, onto, throughout, upon, without, inside, out of, from within etc.

EXAMPLE

Consider the following sentences

  • He was too deeply engrossed into the activity.
  • The prestige of a nation lay upon its citizens.
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  • He climbed onto the chair.
  • She was laughing throughout the movie.
  • He would not be able to make it without you.
  • The book is inside my bag.
  • We ran out of fuel.
  • The voice that changed him came from within.

Compound preposition definition

Unlike Simple prepositions which are simple and short word, a Compound Preposition is a combination of words. According to, aside from, because of, are the few examples of compound preposition.

EXAMPLE

Let us use these words to form simple sentences

  • According to his teacher he is a good student.
  • The room was clean aside from a few strewn pieces of paper.
  • He worked because of the money that he gets.
  • You should have gone west instead of going east.

In the above sentences ‘According to’, aside from, because of, and instead of are examples of compound prepositions. Consider the first sentence- ‘to’ is a simple preposition and ‘according to’ is a compound preposition. Likewise- ‘aside from’, because of, instead of are all the examples of compound prepositions.


The compound prepositions covered till now were two words compound interest, we also have three word compound prepositions like- in addition to, in spite of, in front of, on condition of, on top of etc . We will now go through a few sentences using three words compound prepositions-

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  • In addition to the allowances, he is also entitled for the bonus.
  • In spite of being subjected to frequent criticism, he still manages to do well.
  • Your car was parked in front of the petrol pump.
  • The information was provided by a source on condition of anonymity.
  • The books were lying on top of the table.

Participle Preposition definition

Participle preposition is an action word finishing with ‘- ing’, ‘- en’ or ‘- ed’, which likewise goes about as a relational word. Probably the most well-known instances of participle relational words are – given, considering, with respect to, gave and so forth There are different types of the preposition, and participle preposition is one of those preposition types. It is also known as a participial preposition. If we have to define the participle preposition, it is a participle, which ends with -ing or -ed, and are used as a preposition in the sentence. These are participles which are now accepted as prepositions due to their long term and widespread usage.

EXAMPLE

List/Examples/Words
Concerning, failing, considering, regarding, barred, during, accepting, notwithstanding, expecting, following, excluding, regarding, respected, provided, pending, according, barring, between, given, taken, including, owing etc.

Sentences with Participial Prepositions

  • His monthly salary is in six figures, excluding the incentives.
  • All the listeners were in tears after listening to the touching story of a boy.
  • I have spent around four hours on this project, including lunchtime.
  • I will deliver you the quality content provided good payment is offered.
  • She is interested in anything concerning new trends in the fashion industry.
  • Considering the time invested, this piece turned out beautiful.
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  • The mother said no to talking during the study hours.
  • The cat kept following me through the garden.
  • The teacher was asking questions regarding the topic discussed in the previous class.
  • Chris was playing with his brother when he fell down the broken staircase.
  • Assuming good economic growth in the future, you can take the risk to start this
    business.
  • The court case of Mr. Batra is still pending.
  • Given the exemplary services of this father, a job was offered to him on compassionate
    grounds.
  • You are supposed to use mobile phones during the flight.

Disguised prepositions definition

Disguised prepositions are those prepositions which are not used in the sentences directly, but we use them in a disguised way. Their shorter forms are used. The examples of Disguised Prepositions are ‘a’ and ‘o’. Disguised preposition ‘a’ is shortened form of the preposition ‘on’ and similarly ‘o’ is the shortened form of the preposition ‘of’.

EXAMPLE

Examples of disguised prepositions in sentences:

The ceremony will be held at 5 o’ clock.
We all went to a party.
In the first example, instead of saying ‘5 of the clock’, we have used disguised form of the
preposition of.
In the second example, instead of saying ‘went on partying’, we have used abbreviation of
the preposition on and disguised the preposition as ‘a’. Hence these are Disguised
Prepositions

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Phrase prepositions definition

Phrasal Prepositions are groups of words or phrases that join the noun or pronoun in a sentence, to the remainder of the sentence. These groups of words express a single idea by coming together as a unit.

EXAMPLE

Words that come under the category of Phrasal Prepositions are as follows: In addition to, by means of, in spite of, according to, owing to, in favour of, etc.

He couldn’t pass the test, owing to his lack of knowledge of English Grammar.
She made it to the other side of the world, in spite of all the difficulties.
In the first example, the group of words ‘owing to’ is joining the two sentences with each
other and is a phrase. Likewise, the group of words ‘in spite of’ is also a phrase and is
working as a preposition. Hence, these are Phrasal Prepositions.

Implications of prepositions:
Prepositions are tricky little beasts. The relative shortness of the words (most are six letters or under) and their often misplaced role in the overall scheme of things (why should prepositions be less important than nouns, adjectives or verbs?) mean that we should treat them carefully and perhaps give them more time in the classroom than is usually the case.


While prepositions are limited in number, they are important because they act as vital markers to the structure of a sentence; they mark special relationships between persons, objects, and locations. For this reason, we should think carefully about how we incorporate the teaching and learning of prepositions into our classes

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3.4 CONTEXT CLUES

Antonym definition
Sometimes, the best way to understand something is to understand what not to do or what something isn’t. In the same way, an antonym, or an opposite, can convey meaning. If you point out the differences, you can come to understand each component better.

EXAMPLE

  • Marty is gregarious, unlike his brother who is quiet and shy.
  • Attempting to avoid the accident was futile; it was impossible for either of them to stop
    in time.
  • This painting of the landscape is picturesque, while the one of the old house is just
    plain ugly.
  • The feral cat would not let us pet him, unlike our friendly cat.
  • Our sweltering summer days were quickly replaced by the cold flashes of fall.
  • She was virtuous, unlike her evil and conniving brother.

Synonym definition
The most basic, and perhaps helpful, type of context clues are synonyms. If you can’t decipher a meaning, adding a few synonyms, or words with similar meanings, is a surefire way to point to a word’s meaning.

 

Appositive definition
Appositives are nouns, noun phrases, or noun clauses that rename a noun that comes just before them. Remember that an appositive can be a single word or several words.

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Appositives can be essential or nonessential. If the appositive is necessary for the meaning of the sentence, then it is essential. This means that it cannot be left out. If the appositive is not essential for the meaning of the sentence, and it could be left out, then it is nonessential. Nonessential appositives should be set apart from the sentence with commas. Essential appositives are not set off with commas.

EXAMPLE

Examples of Sentences with Appositives with Explanation

1. My sister Jane is 27 years old. (Jane renames sister)

2. My mom, who is a nurse, drives a red car. (Who is a nurse renames mom, but it is not essential for the meaning of the sentence.)

3. The boy who painted this picture is named Kevin. (Who painted this picture renames boy, and it is essential for the meaning of the sentence.)
Sarah’s dog Rover is a golden retriever. (Rover renames dog.)

Direct definition

A synonym is one way to understand meaning. But, how about a straightforward definition? It’s hard to misconstrue a context clue when the actual definition is provided.

EXAMPLE

  • The manager wanted a weekly inspection, which is a methodical examination of all the
    equipment.
  • Diane was lethargic; she didn’t have the energy to get out of bed.
  • The dates are listed in chronological order; they start at the beginning and end with the
    last event.
  • The doctor’s writing was utterly illegible; no one could read those scribbles.
  • She heard the cry of the banshee, a spirit that alludes to the death of a family member.
  • He knew his future was precarious and likely to fall apart.
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FLORA & FAUNA

4.1 The Largest Bee

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about The Largest Bee. Seven sentences have been
removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-
7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 1

A walnut-sized bee with a wingspan of two and a half inches – roughly the length of a human thumb – may appear to be something from a science fiction film. The Megachile pluto, also known as Wallace’s Giant Bee, is a genuine insect found in Indonesian woods, not a product of a movie writer’s mind. While a few dead bees have been recovered throughout the years, scientists have not observed a living one since 1981.


(1) _________________________ Wallace’s Giant Bee, which is 1.5 inches long and four times the size of a honey bee, takes its name from Alfred Russel Wallace. While touring the Indonesian island of Bacan in 1858, the British naturalist was the first to document the existence of the enormous insect.

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Wallace characterized the bee as “a big black wasp-like insect, having enormous teeth resembling a stag-beetle” in his notes. (2)_________________________ He saw that the clever female bees made their nests within active arboreal termite mounds and coated them with wood chips and sticky tree resin to keep out invading termites. Many scientists have tried to find the unusual bug since then, but have had no luck. Under the Search for Lost Species program, Global Wildlife Conservation listed Wallace’s Giant Bee as one of the top 25 most sought species in 2015. (3)_________________________ However, his
quest to track down the elusive species in the wild did not begin until 2015. It was when he was shown a preserved specimen of the bug by University of Princeton ecologist Eli Wyman. “It was more wonderful than I could have dreamed, even in death,” the
photographer writes on his blog. (4)_________________________

 

The scientists, accompanied by two local guides, spent the days hiking through the hot and humid jungles in search of termite mounds and inspecting them for 20 minutes for evidence of the bug. On the fifth and last day of their journey, just as the crew was ready to give up. One of the guides discovered a termite mound approximately eight feet above the ground on a tree. (5)_________________________ What’s more, the inside of the mound seemed to be moist and sticky. Wyman invited Bolt to have a look since he was almost certain he had discovered the bee’s nest. “I went up next, and my headlight
glinted on the most incredible object I’d ever laid my eyes on,” the photographer adds. (6) ________________________ It was really stunning to see this ‘flying bulldog’ of an insect that we weren’t sure existed anymore, and to have genuine confirmation right there in the wild.”

(7) ________________________________ “I hope this finding will stimulate future study that will give us a greater knowledge of the life history of this extremely unique bee and guide any future attempts to conserve it from extinction,” adds Wyman, who realized a lifelong dream of witnessing a rare species in the wild.

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4.1 The Largest Bee

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

The beautiful insect has now been captured live in its native environment for the first time, thanks to a devoted team of American and Australian researchers.

Adam Messer, an American entomologist, discovered the beautiful species on B. three separate Indonesian islands in 1981.

Bolt and Wyman collaborated with Canadian-Australian writer Glen Chilton and University of Sydney biology professor Simon Robson in January 2019 to look for Wallace’s Giant Bee on the Indonesian island of Ternate.

They also intend to collaborate with conservation organizations to secure the preservation of the wonderful species.

Clay Bolt, an American natural history photographer, first learned about the bee in the early 2000s.

The discovery of the huge bug in the wild has given experts renewed optimism that other rare species are still alive and well in Indonesian woods.

When Wyman dug farther into the mound, he discovered that the hole was a little more perfect and circular than those on previous nests.

I couldn’t believe it: we’d found Wallace’s Giant Bee again.

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4.2 White Grizzly Bear in Canada

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about White Grizzly Bear in Canada. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7).There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 2

With less than 55,000 grizzly bears living in the wild in North America, simply spotting one is reason for excitement. As a result, you can imagine Cara Clarkson and her family’s joy when they encountered two juvenile grizzlies grazing alongside the Trans- Canada Highway near Banff, Canada, on April 26, 2020. “We thought we were really fortunate since white grizzly bears are unheard of,” Cara told St. Albert Today.

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(1) __________________________ The encounter was a wonderful delight for the Director of Operations at the Rimrock Resort Hotel in Banff, who posted her photos and video on social media, considering that the family was out celebrating two birthdays — her husband Tyler’s on April 26 and her three-year-old son Beau’s on April 24. According to Mike Gibeau, a carnivore specialist for Parks Canada and an adjunct professor in the Geography Department at the University of Calgary, the Clarksons and other motorists who have encountered the white bear — now known as Nakoda, which means “friend” or “ally” in
the native language of the area’s three Aboriginal tribes — are extremely fortunate. White grizzly bears are exceedingly rare, despite the fact that there are a few types of white bears that can be discovered, such as Kermode bears in British Columbia and polar bears in the Arctic.

 

“(2)__________________________I’ve only ever seen an extremely, really blond grizzly, never a white one, “Gibeau said to St. Albert Today. The specialist does not believe the grizzly’s white fur is due to albinism, a condition in which an animal fails to generate melanin, a pigment group responsible for skin, hair, and eye color. Instead, he believes the bear’s unique coloration is caused by a recessive gene.

 

(3)___________________________However, if both parents have the same recessive gene – in this example, one that causes white fur – it can be handed on to the offspring. Despite the fact that this is the first time the world has seen a white grizzly, park officials have been aware of Nakoda’s presence since 2018. According to Jon Stuart-Smith, a Parks Canada wildlife management specialist for Lakes Louise, Yoho, and Kootenay, his team first spotted the bear and its sibling as cubs traveling with their mother, who they tracked from 2012 to 2017 as part of a Canadian Pacific-Parks Canada research project to analyze the region’s grizzly bear mortality rates.

 

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(4) __________________________ The wise bears, who travel between Banff and Yoho National Parks, came to the location earlier this year but departed when they realized the grains had been cleaned and there was nothing left to eat. The park managers never publicized the unusual bear for fear of it being incessantly pursued by fans hoping to obtain a sight of it. “These unusual-looking creatures are chased relentlessly by photographers, therefore the less
we say about them, the better,” Gibeau said in an e-mail to The Guardian. The experts were correct, as it turned out. (5) _________________________ To safeguard the animals, concerned officials declared a 10-kilometer no-stopping zone along a portion of the Trans-Canada Highway where two baby grizzlies and numerous black bears were spotted eating dandelions and berries on June 18, 2020. Violators will face fines ranging from $85 (115 CAD) to $18,500. (25,000 CAD). “We hope this advises tourists to travel carefully in the region and prevents these bears from being hit on the highway,” Stuart-Smith added.

 

(6) ______________________________ “At this stage, we want them to acquire a
tendency to avoid humans, particularly automobiles and the roadway,” Stuart-Smith added. “They’re just young bears figuring out how to make a livelihood on the terrain, and they haven’t had enough time to realize they should avoid the highway and people.” Officials hope that the three-and-a-halfyear- old grizzly siblings will ultimately migrate to higher elevations and vanish into the forests, where they may live a long and healthy life. (7)___________________________.

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4.2 The Largest Bee

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

In 2019, Nakoda and its sibling were spotted again, this time without their mother, grazing on grain spilt by a train disaster in Yoho National Park.

Nakoda’s photographs and videos have gone viral, causing a rush of people to hurry to the bear’s present position, resulting in dangerous parking and traffic congestion.

I’ve never seen a white grizzly bear in all my years working with grizzly bears, which began in the early 1980s.

Meanwhile, wildlife specialists are doing everything they can to keep the juvenile grizzlies away from the roadway.

“For those of us driving past, it was a luxury and an experience.”

The features of recessive genes are frequently hidden by those of dominant genes, as the term implies.

“We all want Nakoda the White Grizzly to become Nakoda the ‘Great’ White Grizzly of the Banff National Park region,” they said on Facebook.

Nakoda isn’t the only bear making news

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4.3. Rare Black Leopard

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Rare Black Leopard. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 3

While any sighting of the highly endangered leopard is noteworthy, the sighting of a black leopard is especially noteworthy. The specimen, which was recently photographed in Central Kenya by San Diego Zoo researchers and British wildlife photographer Will Burrard-Lucas, is noteworthy since it is the first scientific evidence of such a species in Africa in over a century. Previously, the sole documented sighting was a picture taken in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia in 1909.

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(1)______________________________The disease is similar to albinism in that it creates an excess of mmelanin, which causes an animal’s hair or skin to turn black. The woods of Southeast Asia are home to 11 percent of leopards among nine subspecies that are melanistic. “It’s considered that melanism provides greater concealment in such areas, providing predators an edge when it comes to hunting,” explains Vincent Naude, project coordinator for the organization Panthera’s leopard genetic forensics study.

 

(2)___________________________The presence of the Kenyan black leopard was discovered in late 2017, when Ambrose Letolulai, a local leopard environmentalist, was attempting to comprehend the inhabitants’ everyday struggle with the surrounding wild animals. An elder recalled seeing a black leopard in a conservancy area in central Kenya’s Laikipia County during one talk in September. When Letolulai told San Diego Zoo biologist Nicholas Pilfold about the conversation, the scientist realized they were on to something unique. The Fish and Wildlife Service is now studying the rush darter in the Turkey Creek watershed to better understand its natural history, location, and population ecology. (3)___________________________ Rush darter populations are widely distant from one another. Historically, rush darters were found in three watersheds: Winston County’s Clear Creek system, Jefferson County’s Turkey Creek system’s Tapawingo/PennySprings region, and Etowah County’s Little Cove Creek system. However, just two rush darter populations survive in the Clear Creek and Turkey Creek systems at the moment.

 

(4)____________________________The rush darter’s type habitat is a roadside ditch on a roadway that runs through Pinson and the Tapawingo/Penny Springs region. This vital ecosystem might be quickly destroyed by a single catastrophic catastrophe. The vermilion darter can only be found in 7.2 miles (11.5 kilometres) of Turkey Creek’s main stem and the lowermost reaches of two tributaries within the Turkey Creek drainage.

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(5)_________________________In 1998, a county prison was proposed for construction near Turkey Creek, with direct sedimentation consequences on the vermilion darter and the watershed. This worried the local community, prompting it to create START in order torally support for Turkey Creek’s protection (Society to Advance the Resources of Turkey Creek). Following talks between Jefferson County and START, the prison was relocated to a place beyond the watershed.

 

(6)________________________________The Service met with watershed stakeholders, including START and Jefferson County, to discuss the vermilion darter’s distribution, threats, and status. START engaged in numerous “Partners for Fish and Wildlife Projects’’ targeted at reducing nonpoint source pollution in Turkey Creek in order to reduce risks to the vermilion darter. Furthermore, the Black Warrior and Cahaba River Land Trust, in collaboration with the
Service, identified key areas within the watershed for prospective acquisition by the
Jefferson County Greenways Project. (7)__________________________________It also has a healthy population of watercress darters. The Service assisted in the restoration of this region. The Service signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Jefferson County in 2001, which will notify us of any county projects that may have an impact on the vermilion darter’s habitat.

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4.3 The Largest Bee

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

And then to receive black leopards, well, I was really thrilled and astonished the first time I got them.

“The name “Black Panther” refers to any large black cat”, according to Pilfold.

“Our [Kenyan] leopards live in savannah-type habitats, so having that extra melanism doesn’t provide them an adaptive benefit,” according to the researchers.

The young wild cat happens to live near the area of the film’s fictitious Kingdom of Wakanda!

It took a few days for it to sink in that I’d realized my dream had come true.

The leopard’s dark skin called melanism caused by a genetic abnormality.

Pilfold’s crew landed on the area in early 2018 and installed eight motiondetecting trail cameras near where the black leopard sightings had been recorded. Sure enough, the black leopard appeared a few days later.

Sure enough, the black leopard appeared a few days later.

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4.4. A Sunflower

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about A Sunflower. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 4

Many of the 27 plants and 13 animals classified as endangered or vulnerable in New Mexico can be considered desert indigenous. Two of our state’s lesser-known animals, the Pecos sunflower and the Socorro isopod, show the sorts of problems these species face.

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The Pecos sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) is an annual that resembles the common sunflower found along roadsides and in other disturbed regions in North America. (1)_________________________ It blooms from July to October, a month later than the common sunflower. The only sunflower in the Southwest that requires permanent wetlands for life is the Pecos sunflower. It thrives on salty soils in springs, marshes, and on the borders of lakes and streams. (2)_____________________________The Pecos sunflower may be found in 25 locations throughout five states, including New Mexico and Texas. It grows near Grants, along with the Rio San Jose, in and around Santa Rosa, and along the Pecos River from just north of Roswell to just north of Dexter in New Mexico. It may be found in Texas just north of Fort Stockton and in Balmorhea.  . (3)____________________________The number of plants at each location ranges from a few to thousands. Much of the marsh habitat on which the Pecos sunflower is dependent has been lost or damaged. Many springs, notably in Texas, are now dry as a result of irrigation groundwater pumping. (4)________________________Many wetlands have been drained and filled as a result of nonnative tamarisk or salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) invasion. Wetland losses continue, but at a slower pace than in the past. Livestock will also consume the Pecos sunflower, which can wipe out a population if grazing is constant. 

(5)_____________________________Six sites are administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, or National Park Service; one is a state park; four are managed by the municipality of Santa Rosa; one is managed by the Pueblo of Laguna
Tribe, and 12 are managed by private people or groups. Some of the other locations are on state or federal highway rights-of-way. The Pecos sunflower is listed as endangered in New Mexico under the state’s Endangered Plant Species Act. (6)_________________________Both sites are preserved as natural habitats for local animals, including endangered species. With the help of a $5,000 federal grant, the State Land Office and the New Mexico Energy, Minerals, and Natural Resources Department are collaborating to plant seeds near Roswell and Fort Sumner as part of the Pecos sunflower recovery project. Grazing leaseholders on state trust property have agreed to set aside a few tiny sections for the project.
(7)______________________________This tiny crustacean is similar to the terrestrial pill bug, but it lives in an aquatic spring near Socorro, New Mexico. In the spring, temperatures vary from 88 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit (31 to 32 degrees C). The water flowing from the hot spring was diverted for the building of a spa in the late 1970s.

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4.4 The Largest Bee

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

Many surviving springs’ unrestricted flow has been collected for household use, limiting the extent of wetlands.

Most locations have only a few acres of wetland habitat, although a few are larger.

The Socorro isopod (Thermosphaeroma thermophilus) is one of only seven freshwater species in the Sphaeromidae, a marine isopod family.

This plant is also known as the riddle or paradox sunflower.

The number of plants at each place is determined by the availability of water; if a spot dries up, the sunflowers will disappear.

The Pecos sunflower has significant populations in Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge near Roswell, New Mexico, and The Nature Conservancy’s Diamond Y Preserve near Fort Stockton, Texas.

The spa has now closed, but the diversion has kept the animal in two small concretelined basins, where it looks to be thriving.

The sites where the Pecos sunflower grows are owned and maintained by a number of federal, state, tribal, municipal, and private entities.

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4.5 A Species of Fish

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about A Species of Fish. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1- 7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 5

The majority of people in the United States currently live in cities and suburbs, which occupy just 3% of the country’s land area. In turn, stormwater drainage and the construction of buildings, homes, roads, and parking lots on these developed areas impact the majority of the water that enters our southern streams and lakes. Three fish species are threatened by excessive sedimentation in urban streams in the Pinson neighborhood in Jefferson County, Alabama, just northeast of Birmingham.

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(1)_______________________________Sediment abrades and suffocates creatures clinging to submerged substrates (such as pebbles, sticks, and leaf litter), disturbs normal aquatic insect functions such as eating and reproduction, and reduces fish growth, survival, and reproduction. The animals that have developed in these waters over thousands of years are threatened. The freshwater fish species with the most restricted distributions in Alabama are
the watercress darter (Etheostoma nuchali), which was listed as endangered in 1970, the rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum), which is a listing candidate, and the vermilion darter (Etheostoma chermocki), which was listed as endangered in 2001.

 

(2)_________________________ According to a recent assessment of the watercress darter population, it has spread across the Tapawingo/Penny Springs streams that have not been damaged by sediments. Rush and vermilion darters, on the other hand, have fallen dramatically across the Turkey Creek watershed of the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River. The Fish and Wildlife Service is now studying the rush darter in the Turkey Creek watershed to better understand its natural history, location, and population ecology.

 

(3)_________________________________Rush darter populations are widely distant from one another. Historically, rush darters were found in three watersheds: Winston County’s Clear Creek system, Jefferson County’s Turkey Creek system’s Tapawingo/Penny Springs region, and Etowah County’s Little Cove Creek system. However, just two rush darter populations survive in the Clear Creek and Turkey Creek systems at the moment.

 

(4)__________________________The rush darter’s type habitat is a roadside ditch on a roadway that runs through Pinson and the Tapawingo/Penny Springs region. This vital ecosystem might be quickly destroyed by a single catastrophic catastrophe. The vermilion darter can only be found in 7.2 miles (11.5 kilometres) of Turkey Creek’s main stem and the lowermost reaches of two tributaries within the Turkey Creek drainage.

 

(5)_____________________________ In 1998, a county prison was proposed for construction near Turkey Creek, with direct sedimentation consequences on the vermilion darter and the watershed. This worried the local community, prompting it to create START in order to rally support for Turkey Creek’s protection (Society to Advance the Resources of Turkey Creek). Following talks between Jefferson County and START, the prison was relocated to a place
beyond the watershed.

 

(6)_____________________________ The Service met with watershed stakeholders, including START and Jefferson County, to discuss the vermilion darter’s distribution, threats, and status.

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START engaged in numerous “Partners for Fish and Wildlife Projects’’ targeted at reducing nonpoint source pollution in Turkey Creek in order to reduce risks to the vermilion darter. Furthermore, the Black Warrior and Cahaba River Land Trust, in collaboration with the Service, identified key areas within the watershed for prospective acquisition by the Jefferson County Greenways Project. (7)_________________________It also has a healthy population of watercress darters. The Service assisted in the restoration of this region. The Service signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Jefferson County in 2001, which will notify us of any county projects that may have an impact on the vermilion darter’s habitat.

4.5 Sunflower

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

The watercress darter was planted in Turkey Creek’s Tapawingo/Penny Springs region in 1988 and has survived despite threats from urbanization and silt.

Auburn University researchers assessed the species’ overall population to be 500 or fewer individuals across its entire habitat.

Jefferson County bought one such property, the Tapawingo/Penny Spring region, a pure water tributary of the stream and a breeding location for vermilion and perhaps rush darters. D. Concurrently, Jefferson County proposed repurposing the former 600-acre (240-hectare) prison property along Turkey Creek as a nature preserve, with plans for a nature centre and acreage management.

In exchange, we share information with the county regarding vermilion darter range areas and habitat requirements.

The population of vermilion darters was estimated to be less than 3,500 individuals by researchers at the University of Alabama.

The Pecos sunflower has significant populations in Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge near Roswell, New Mexico, and The Nature Conservancy’s Diamond Y Preserve near Fort Stockton, Texas.

The rush darter, a species not identified until 1999, had received little attention until recently.

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4.6 How Koalas Beat the Heat

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about How Koalas Beat the Heat. Seven sentences have
been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each
gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 6

When you think of koalas, the image that comes to mind is of a cute mammal sleeping while clinging to a tree trunk for dear life – and rightly so, given that the creatures sleep for up to 20 hours each day! While it is widely known that their sedentary lifestyle is driven by their extremely tiny brains and the low nutritious value of the eucalyptus leaves they ingest, what has never been questioned is their fondness for tree trunks.

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1) _________________________________The startling finding was found by Michael Kearney, an ecologist at the University of Melbourne, and PhD student Natalie Briscoe while doing research into how the creatures endure summer temperatures that frequently exceed 104°F (40°C). The topic was especially pertinent for koalas because the little marsupials do not drink water and instead rely exclusively on the fluids found in the eucalyptus leaves they consume voraciously. While this is sufficient to keep them going during the colder winter months, it may become a problem during the hot summers, especially because climate change is projected to result in even more severe temperatures. The researcher began by attaching radio collars to 37 koalas on French Island in Victoria, following their movements throughout the winter of 2009 and again during the peak summer months of December 2010 to March 2011.

 

(2)_____________________________________They observed that the intelligent creatures not only alter their resting locations according to the weather, but also the trees they sleep on. During the summer, they prefer the portion of the tree trunk or branch closest to the ground. They readily perch higher up in the winter, spending the most of their time on extended branches.

 

(3)_____________________________________ The researchers utilized an infrared thermometer to measure the temperatures of four types of trees – three eucalyptus and one Acacia – during the warmest summer months to examine the explanation for this intentional behavior. This confirmed what the koalas had suspected all along: tree trunks and branches closer to the ground had a considerably lower temperature than the surrounding air. Furthermore, the Acacia tree trunks were the coldest of the four measured – by as much as

9°F! (4)_______________________________To test this hypothesis, the researchers created an equation to calculate how successful ‘tree-hugging’ may be. After accounting for their fur, they determined that a 25-pound koala could shed 68 percent of its surplus heat on a 95°F day by merely hugging a tree in a shaded area. That’s very great!

 

(5)___________________________________They propose that there is a microclimate in the shady trunks that is critical for the health of numerous species, ranging from treedwelling monkeys to birds. These new results will aid wildlife experts in their efforts to establish special sanctuaries to safeguard endangered koalas from the dangers of climate change and habitat

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degradation. In addition to the eucalyptus trees that are the marsupial’s major source of food, they will now include a sprinkling of Acacia trees to guarantee that they have access to natural air cooling if necessary. (6)________________________They are, in fact, a kind of marsupial. The animals, which are mostly found in Australasia, are distinguished by the pouch in which they carry their young. When born, koala children are the size of a tiny bee and blind. (7)________________________________The nocturnal creatures, which are only found in eastern Australia, rely exclusively on eucalyptus leaves for life, consuming up to 2.5 pounds each day and even storing some for snacks within the pouches of their cheeks.

4.6 How Koalas Beat the Heat

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

They spend the first six months of their lives tucked within the mother’s protective pouch and the following six months clinging to her back or tummy.

The researchers, who just published their results in the science journal Biology Letters, feel that koalas aren’t the only ones benefiting from the phenomena.

In fact, the animals consume so many of the leaves that they create a strong stench of eucalyptus oil, which deters predators!

Furthermore, many koalas appeared to seek refuge in Acacia trees on the warmest days, which the researchers found fascinating given that the creatures do not eat the leaves.

During the scorching Australian summers, clever koalas have discovered that sticking near to trees is the best way to beat the heat

Despite being regarded as “bears,” koalas are not members of the Ursidae family of mammals, which conventional bears are.

In addition to keeping comprehensive data on the collared animals’ activities, they also observed an additional 130 koalas that live in the same area.

This prompted Kearney and Briscoe to suggest that koalas’ tree-hugging habit was crucial to their survival, particularly during the summer months.

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4.7 A Species of Parrot

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about A Species of Parrot. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 7

The Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata), which is only found on the island of Puerto Rico, is one of the world’s ten most endangered birds. This emerald-green parrot is one of nine Amazon parrot species endemic to the West Indies and the only living native parrot in the United States. The parrot, which was formerly common across Puerto Rico and its outer islands, may now be found only deep within the montane rainforest of theCaribbean National Forest (commonly known as El Yunque), the only tropical rainforest in the United States National Forest System.

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(1)_____________________________The following European colonization of Puerto Rico, on the other hand, led to a significant rise in the island’s human population. This rise resulted in widespread agricultural deforestation, parrot hunting for food or crop damage, and the capture of wild nestlings for domestic pets. By 1959, the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico’s last stretch of essentially virgin forest, had just an isolated colony of about 200 Puerto Ricann parrots.(2)______________________________In 1968, intensive rehabilitation attempts were launched. The creation of the Luquillo Aviary in the Caribbean National Forest in 1973 marked the beginning of captive breeding. In 1993, a second captive flock was established in the Jose L.
Vivaldi Aviary in the Rio Abajo Commonwealth Forest, expanding the captive breeding effort. (3)______________________________The aviaries are also essential as a safe refuge for parrot chicks injured in the wild, a genetic reserve for the species, and a supply of parrots for ultimate release back into the wild. The combined output of these two successful aviaries has resulted in a continuous accumulation of Puerto Rican parrots in captivity throughout the
years. In fact, there are now more Puerto Rican parrots in captivity (156) than there are in the wild (30-35). This, together with the dangerously tiny number of the single wild population, prompted plans to release free-flying captive-reared parrots to supplement the natural population. 4)______________________________Following the success of the pilot experiment, ten captive- reared Puerto Rican parrots were carefully chosen from aviary flocks for the critical first release in the Caribbean National Forest. These parrots underwent extensive prerelease training and acclimation to build and increase their flying ability, wild food manipulation, and predator identification and avoidance skills. To increase the likelihood that released parrots would integrate into the wild population, a release site in the centre of the wild parrots’ rainforest habitat was chosen. (5)_______________________________We were able to establish this group’s post-release travels and survival since each parrot was fitted with a radio transmitter. We were delighted after months of monitoring the parrots throughout El Yunque’s rocky, unforgiving terrain by discovering that half of the parrots had not only survived their vital first year in the wild but had also settled into the same valleys utilized by the wild parrots. The majority of the Puerto Rican parrots that did not survive were killed by red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). We released a bigger group of 16 captivereared parrots in May 2001, building on this excellent experience.

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(6)______________________________However, because of prior raptor predation occurrences, predator aversion training was increased. Each parrot was again outfitted with a radio transmitter and tracked after being released. The second group’s first-year survival rate (44 percent) was comparable to the previous group’s. 7)________________________________.

4.7 A Species of Parrot

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

Finally, on June 27, 2000, at daybreak, we released the first batch of ten Puerto Rican parrots.

We gave it the same pre-release training as the previous batch.

The population of the parrot had fallen to 70 individuals by the time it was formally classified as endangered in 1967.

In May 2002, nine captive-reared Puerto Rican parrots were released, with a first-year survival trajectory substantially equal to that of the 2001 release.

A pilot experiment was initially carried out in the Dominican Republic, with the help of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, using local non-endangered Hispaniolan parrots to test procedures and create a safe strategy for releasing the Puerto Rican parrots.

When Columbus landed in Puerto Rico in 1493, the native Taino Indians dubbed the parrot “Iguaca,” after the sound of its unique flying cry.

However, in 2000, 30% of released parrots became victim to hawks within three months after release, whereas just one parrot (6.3%) did so in 2001.

These two captive flocks now protect the people from being wiped out by a single catastrophic event, such as a hurricane or illness

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Chapter 5

Global Studies

5.1 Melbourne Street Art

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Melbourne Street Art. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 1

We’re typically warned to avoid back alleys when exploring the world’s major cities. The go-local advice in Melbourne, Australia’s second biggest city, is to get lost in them. Some of Melbourne’s greatest street art and graffiti can be seen in the city’s alleyways and laneways.

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(1)_______________________________Without a thematic anchor, exploring and comprehending a large city may be difficult. We chose street art as our theme for our time in Melbourne at the end of our Explore Australia tour. We looked for a self-guided street art walking tour and found this longstanding one to serve as our starting point. Although it was a little out of date, its route offered us with a simple route in and around central Melbourne, as
well as a few laneways and alleyways that serve as a living playground for Melbourne’s graffiti and urban street artists. (2)_____________________________Layers of history on a dynamic urban canvas. Turn another street and you could come upon a group of industrial waste bins that have been transformed into practical art. Street murals of various sizes tower and spread across the Victorian and modern industrial brick facades of the city. There are photos with serious, humorous, and light themes (3)_________________________________Street art exists as social commentary and provides a visual picture of the prevalent, and sometimes opposing, attitudes at any given moment. We detoured to other well-known places and got
pleasantly lost along the way on our street art stroll. We stopped at several of Melbourne’s famed cafés, brunch spots, fish and chip shops, and dumpling places, but we always returned to the same path to examine what, if anything, remained of once-famous works. (4) __________________________________ We also utilized the same street art perspective and approach while exploring other Melbourne districts such as Fitzroy and Collingwood.
The way a city expresses itself via public art reveals a lot about not only the artists, but also the community that permits or even welcomes the art to exist. These phrases represent the contemporary cultural and socioeconomic climate. (5)________________________________ When you glance up and see a wall gazing back at you, it might put a stop to your thoughts. We’ve been consuming international street art and graffiti for years, and our understanding of
it has developed with time. Dive deeper into Berlin’s street art culture to understand not just the artistic, creative, and physical talent necessary for street artists to bring their ideas to life, but also the amount of social and cultural thinking that goes into their work. (6)_________________________________However, it is the abundance of street art and the accompanying spirit of artistic freedom that appears to be the driving undercurrent of it all. When we hear the word “Melbourne,” we immediately think of getting lost in its street artfilled laneways. (7)______________________________________.

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5.1 Melbourne Street Art

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

Everything suggests a deeper tale, a persistent need to express oneself.

Graffiti-covered alleys and lanes visually engage and kindle creative fires.

We occasionally found ourselves staring at a blank brick wall where a painting had previously been, or looking for a structure that no longer exists.

It was an experience in and of itself for us, as well as a means of wrapping our heads and hearts around the spirit of one of the world’s most populous cities.

We followed our curiosity to discover what the next alley or brick wall had in store for us.

If you narrow your search just so, you’ll also find yourself on the way to some delicious meals and spectacular coffee-drinking adventures.

Turn a turn, say on Hosier or Rutledge Lane, and you’ll be surrounded by laneway walls so thickly painted that you can peel it.

Cosmopolitan. Hip. Cafe-filled. Tasty. Melbourne may be described in a variety of ways.

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5.2 Travel Guide to Chobe, Botswana

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Travel Guide to Chobe, Botswana. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 2

Late afternoon in Botswana’s Chobe River, as the sun sets. As I sat back in one of the director’s chairs on the deck of our boat, I had a “Pale Blue Dot” experience. “What is a Pale Blue Dot moment?” you may wonder. (1)__________________________It’s not trivial, to be sure. At the same time, your local surroundings call your attention to the emotional enormity of the sensations at hand – in this example, the glass-like surface of the river, the birds of prey overhead, and the gradient of a sinking sun. Then, just as I was about to lose it, a family of elephants raced down over a hill to take the day’s final drink on
the river’s side.

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(2) _____________________________________ If I didn’t know any better, I’d think it was all staged, with someone portraying me as the chokedup fool I was going to become. I was taken with the beauty of what was in front of me. (3) ___________________________ Furthermore, I believe that if we are not more conscious, we risk losing beauty. Chobe, a region in northern Botswana with a national park and river of the same name, is sure to entice you, owing largely to the allure of game drives and the cycle of animals along the river’s side. However, owing to a few carefully chosen activities, we not only had a one-of-a-kind safari experience, but we also left with a feeling of Botswana’s history and a profound understanding of its indigenous culture. (4) ______________________________ Our goal is to provide some varied ideas and practical information to help you design your Chobe itinerary by adding additional experiences to a previous trip or to assist you in sculpting one if you are constructing one from scratch. Seeing elephants from our boat seemed more personal than earlier elephant encounters we’d had. Perhaps because we were less bothersome to the elephants on the water than we could have been on land, they seemed to go about their business and play without giving us a second thought. (5)________________________________________ Their speed and fun frequently appear to contradict their size – most of the time, that is, until you see a newborn elephant faceplant. If you go to a place, don’t forget to taste their local cuisine! (6) _____________________________________ In addition to Botswanan favorites like seswaa (pounded beef), samp (maize), and morogo (greens, bean leaves), our home-cooked feast included tswii (water lily with beef), mabele (sorghum porridge), mopane (worms – full
disclosure, we had a hard time getting these down, but you must try them at least once), madila (sour milk yogurt), and for the grand finale, a sweet-tart yogurt produced from the baobab tree’s fruit. All of this took place in the Chobe Enklave town of Kachikau (near to Chobe National Park). We met beneath the shade of a tree outside Mma Mercy’s home, our host for the afternoon, in a nice, relaxed setting. (7)______________________________This final piece, we’ve discovered in our travels across the world, serves as a source of universal disagreement.

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5.2 Travel Guide to Chobe, Botswana

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

It reminded me that we have something wonderful on our planet, which I admit to taking for granted at times.

Meanwhile, we had what appeared to be a front-row seat.

We prepared this experience travel guide to Chobe to assist you in planning your vacation.

A “Pale Blue Dot” moment occurs when you contemplate a strong sensation you’re having, overlay it into the canvas of your life, and then consider it in the grand scheme of the cosmos.

As we asked about food, the subject inevitably shifted to family, community, weddings, and whether or not traditional knowledge and methods are being lost in the transfer to the “new” generation.

This would be a perfect end to our four-day adventure in Chobe.

Certain living circumstances appear to trigger such Pale Blue Dot moments.

Botswana’s cuisine mirrors the country’s terrain, with a concentration on commodities that thrive in the semi-arid climate: maize, sorghum, and cattle.

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5.3 To Antarctica or Not

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about To Antarctica or Not. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 3

We were talking about traveling with some friends over dinner the other night, when the subject of Antarctica came up. Perhaps it was the delicacies (it had been a hard day), but I became energized as I contemplated the possibilities. Until recently, Antarctica looked like a distant fantasy, the stuff of conjecture. (1)_____________________________The end of the season is nearing, which is usually our favorite time to visit anywhere. Perhaps there will be a cancellation that we can fill? The previous time we used a just-intime method, we scheduled a last-minute trip in the Galapagos Islands, and it worked out perfectly.

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(2)____________________________Surprisingly, we only received one answer. (Note: A similar request for Galapagos excursions last summer drew more than a dozen answers. The Galapagos tour agents appear to be more BigDog-savvy than the Antarctica team.)
(3) ________________________________ At the time of writing, there are still spots available on two March excursions. Both would be fantastic, but one in particular appears to be outstanding. It is worth noting that nothing associated with Antarctica is cheap, although both deals appear to be
reasonably priced. (4) ________________________ Antarctica appears to be genuinely far away, beyond our comprehension. Forbidden. Harsh. The terrain is isolated and desolate – with the exception of a few regulars, we’d want to meet up close (e.g., penguins).
(5) _________________________________ Finally, the place’s pure visual splendor is appealing: the terrain, the glaciers, the way the light bends over it all. (Do you have any of these photos?) Add to that the sense of urgency. (6) _________________________ Perhaps it won’t happen right away. Perhaps the story is only a marketing gimmick, and the limitations will never be implemented. I’m a skeptic, and I’m well aware of all of this. I am sure that the poles are melting, regardless of what or who is driving their rapid departure. (7)_____________________We’re not huge lovers of collecting passport stamps or boasting about how many countries we’ve been, but there’s something weirdly attractive about visiting a continent so distant that most people will never consider visiting. What is holding us back? It’s straightforward: money. We don’t have a lot of money, so making this materialize would deplete a significant portion of what we expected to spend in South America. It would necessitate an increase in our company operations (which might not be a bad thing?). We may need to make some time and budgetary changes.

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5.3 To Antartica or Not

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

But could – or should – we strive to make it a reality?

Authorities are rumored to be considering limiting travel to Antarctica.

But, I’m curious to hear your thoughts.

Regardless, the one answer this time appears to have connected us with the correct Antarctica agent.

Then there’s the matter of Antarctica being the world’s sixth continent.

So we put out a question on social media called BigDog asking for information on the availability of Antarctica excursions starting in March (as in two weeks from now).

So, what’s the big deal about Antarctica?

I imagine an icebreaker, as well as the challenge of navigating the elements and stormy seas to get there.

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5.4 To ABaku - Azerbaijan’s Capital

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Baku – Azerbaijan’s Capital. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 4

Quotes are sometimes the greatest approach to explain a location. Here are a few from our buddy Yahya of Azerbaijan’s capital, Baku. The impact of Azerbaijan’s current oil boom (the country’s second, the first being in the early 1900s) can be felt almost everywhere, not least in the cost of lodging, which is targeted more towards oil executives with huge expense accounts than independent visitors.

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(1) ______________________________ We chose a short-term apartment rental because Baku did not appear to have a network of homestay families like Tbilisi and Yerevan. “When the woman arrives, don’t speak English. I informed her that you were Estonian. (2) ____________________________________.” These instructions were given to us by Yahya just a few minutes before the apartment agent arrived. Audrey’s Russian abilities fit the stereotype – Estonians are notorious for their weak command of the Russian language. Estonians are also noted for their quiet demeanor. Dan was a good fit for this part, tossing
in a reassuring “da” (yeah, in Russian) here and there. Note: (3) _______________________________ Yahya negotiated on behalf of the impoverished Estonians. The agent examined us, called the landlady, served as our champion, and inquired whether a “nice couple from the Baltics” might receive a discount.
We’ve admitted it. (4) ____________________________ Given how costly Baku is these days, we, too, began to pine for the “good ol’ days.” When we were touring in Baku, Yahya acted as our impromptu tour guide, showing us about his city on our route to and from the Uzbek embassy and our
favorite baklava shop. (5) ______________________________ “You must hire a guide.” A guide will show you a rock pile and explain that it was previously a toilet. “I’ll tell you it’s simply a pile of rocks.” (6) _______________________________ Such is life when you live in the same neighborhood as epic preservationists like Genghis Khan and the Soviets. Baku’s ancient neighborhood is no exception. Shirvanshah’s Palace has lately undergone
“Euro-Remont,” as the locals describe it. (7) ________________________________ We hired a guide since we couldn’t resist Yahya’s recommendation. She led us through the palace, filling our imaginations with information about how the area must have felt hundreds of years ago when it was in us

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5.4 To Baku – Azerbaijan’s Capital

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

The fact is that most of what you see in the Caucasus and Central Asia is most likely the result of restoration efforts.

Audrey was a Peace Corps Volunteer in Estonia for nearly two years, so she knows a thing or two about impersonating Estonians.

Hotels were out of the question based on our study.

We went to Shirvanshah’s Palace, one of Baku’s many UNESCO monuments, one evening together.

This way, we receive a better deal.

We pretended to be Estonians in order to capitalize on the lingering nostalgia for Soviet times...and we got our discount.

Despite the fact that the walls are still standing, the site has lost much of its personality behind layers of fresh cement.

Every other corner has a construction site.

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5.4 To Supporting Madagascar Conservation and Community

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Baku – Azerbaijan’s Capital. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 5

Here’s a case study from our recent trip to Madagascar if you’ve ever questioned whether your trips may make a difference. It exemplifies how tourism may aid in conservation, sustainability, and community development. (1) _________________________ Given that 80-90 percent of Madagascar’s fauna and plant species are unique to the island, the country’s 110 lemur species are just the beginning. There are sparkling chameleons, hissing cockroaches, ancient baobab tree species, luminous frogs, and medicinal plants that appear to treat everything in this mega- diverse (a scientific phrase, in reality) country.

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Many conservationists think that ecotourism is the single most important factor in ensuring the survival of lemurs in Madagascar.

(2) _________________________ Tourists will come to view lemurs in their natural habitat. Positive impact may occur when visitors connect their travel and shopping selections with their beliefs, such as selecting tours, activities, itineraries, and experiences that promote animal protection and community development. Here are a few options for vacationers in Madagascar. (3) __________________________Our global experience has taught us that conservation programs that do not involve local people and intentionally neglect local economic realities do not succeed in the long term. That is where the Madagascar community park concept differs from others, integrating the goals of long- term conservation with the local purpose of community development. Anja Community Park is one of the suggested community parks. (4)__________________________ It wasn’t always like this. Nore, our local guide at Anja Community Park, said that when the park first opened in 1999, much of the surrounding woodland had been devastated by slash and burn agriculture techniques. The community park’s strategy was to begin by planting trees in order to extend the forest and put an end to lemur hunting. The goal is to increase lemur populations in order to bring tourists to the region to observe the animals. (5) ___________________________ It also provides visitors
with an unforgettable lemur experience. In fact, it’s ridiculous. The lemurs were lively and entertaining, leaping over, around, and between us. They were plainly in their element, in their natural home. (6) _________________________ Despite the fact that we’ve just lauded Madagascar’s community parks, don’t overlook the country’s 42 national parks. Because of the vast amount of area and space they cover, they also play an important role in safeguarding
rainforests, animals, and other species. Not to mention that they provide fantastic opportunities to see many kinds of lemurs and other animals – frequently in the setting of enjoyable day walks and stunning scenery. (7) _____________________________ Because many towns and families have been relocated as a result of the conservation and rainforest reclamation efforts, a part of national park fees is also meant to help adjacent settlements.
Visitors are also required by national park employment programs to hire a park guide, who is generally accompanied by a team of animal spotters.

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5.5 . Supporting Madagascar Conservation and Community

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

The fact is that most of what you see in the Caucasus and Central Asia is most likely the result of restoration efforts.

Audrey was a Peace Corps Volunteer in Estonia for nearly two years, so she knows a thing or two about impersonating Estonians.

Hotels were out of the question based on our study.

We went to Shirvanshah’s Palace, one of Baku’s many UNESCO monuments, one evening together.

This way, we receive a better deal.

We pretended to be Estonians in order to capitalize on the lingering nostalgia for Soviet times...and we got our discount.

Despite the fact that the walls are still standing, the site has lost much of its personality behind layers of fresh cement.

Every other corner has a construction site.

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5.6 A week in Bali

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about A Week in Bali. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1- 7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 6

Bali, despite its tiny size, can pack a lot of things into a week: sunrise volcano climbing, scuba diving in coral reefs, seeing Balinese Hindu temples, resting on the beach, and much more. If you only have one week in Bali, here are some ideas for an agenda that includes some adventure, outdoor activities, culture, food, and leisure. The first interesting activity is Volcano Sunrise, which is accomplished by ascending Mt. Batur. To be honest, getting up at
3:30 AM was a nightmare, especially considering we went to bed after midnight. (1) ________________________ We were enjoying a volcanic sunrise only 90 minutes later. After we’d taken in the scenery, our local hiking guide led us to the rim of one of the craters, where he hid a bunch of eggs in the ground and let the hot steam of the volcano fry them. Breakfast on a volcano, no stove required.

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(2) _______________________________ They may appear charming, but they stole Audrey’s food from her hands. Second, we may go scuba diving in Menjangan Island. This was our favorite dive of our two days in Bali. (3) __________________________ The forms,
patterns, and colors of Mother Nature’s undersea creations often inspire visual artists. The visibility is excellent, and you don’t have to walk very far to have a visually pleasant experience. Because this region is less prone to strong currents than other Bali dive sites, it offers a more peaceful dive experience where you can preserve some air and remain down
longer to enjoy the underwater trip. (4) _______________________________ Balinese Hinduism differs significantly from Hinduism practiced in India, and it is central to much of everyday life in Bali, including daily offerings and a plethora of festivals. Our visit to the 8th century Besakih Temple at the foot of Mount Agung included a lengthy trek to the top of the complex with a local guide. Along the way, we asked all of the questions we’d accumulated about Balinese life and religion — about its numerous gods, rites, pagodas, and caste system — and a beginner’s course in Balinese Hinduism developed. The next exciting activity in Ubud is to relax.
(5) _______________________ However, don’t let the tourist sections put you off the site. Keep your eyes peeled as you stroll through the streets of Ubud, Bali. You’ll discover wooden entrances — sometimes plain, sometimes artistically carved — set into brick and stone archway gates tucked in
amongst all those fashionable cafés and stores.
(6) ______________________________ Inside, you’ll discover altars strewn with offerings and maybe a sculpted Ganesh decorated with flowers (my favorite Ganesh statues are those where his feet come together in a yoga pose). At first sight, you may think you’ve stumbled
into a Balinese Hindu temple complex. (7) _______________________________ According to the father of our host, they typically include a temple for the gods (where daily offerings and prayers are made), a temple for the people (where birth, marriage, and funeral rites are held), and a house where several generations of family dwell.

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5.6 . A Week in Bali

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

Menjangan Island’s coral reefs are reasonably well-preserved because it is a natural reserve.

If you look closely, you’ll notice that these gateways function as portals to other realms of green and tranquility.

Another wonderful location that we must visit is the Balinese Hindu Temples.

Keep an eye out for the hungry monkeys.

Our cooking class began appropriately with a tour of the Ubud market.

Ubud has become a popular destination for tourists looking to unwind, practice yoga, and simply be.

In reality, these tranquil garden havens are frequently merely household courtyards.

But when we climbed in complete darkness and saw the shadows of the surrounding cloud- swaddled volcanoes, it was apparent that it had all been worth it.

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5.7 Go or No Go to Myanmar

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Go or No Go to Myanmar. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 7

Myanmar (Burma) is a country known for its repressive regime and praised for its people’s compassion. However, in September, the political situation erupted once more as a result of demonstrations and a subsequent government response. We’re back in Southeast Asia’s area and have the opportunity to visit. (1)__________________________We had a discussion about it a few days ago. We had a similar decision earlier this year when we opted
to visit Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, both of which have unsavory regimes.

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Aside from the question of safety, there are two schools of thought on whether or not visitors should visit nations ruled by repressive governments.

(2)___________________________ After all, the government receives a share of tourist spending in the form of taxes and payments to state-controlled tourism organizations. Some even argue that visiting these nations implies tacit support for their administrations. The opposing side believes that tourists should continue to visit these nations in order to meet locals and support their local tourism businesses and economies. (3) _____________________________ There’s also a case to be made for lubricating the gears of conversation and tourist diplomacy. We opted to visit Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan earlier in the year and are pleased we did. Our trips to those nations provided us with a broader perspective and a better knowledge of what life is like — for the better and for the worse – for the people who live there. (4) _________________________ We passed up the opportunity to visit Myanmar earlier this year. We decided to visit Burma this time after hearing accounts from other tourists about how extremely kind the Burmese people are. Though it is unreasonable to expect that none of the money we spend there would end up in the hands of the government, efforts may be taken to limit their share.

(5)________________________________ When feasible, we’ll use non-government transportation. Our objective is to use whatever money we have in such a way that it benefits as many regular people as possible. Given the severe crackdowns in Myanmar earlier this year, acquiring a visa appears to be quite simple. (6) ____________________________ We did, however, agree not to intervene in Myanmar’s domestic affairs. The Myanmar visa application procedure becomes more complex if you are not a “typical” visitor. We overheard the immigration officer questioning the man next to us about his wife’s job with an international organization in Bangkok, for example. (7) _____________________________ The visa officer, on the other hand, was very kind in explaining everything. He apologized for the inconvenience and stated that the new Yangon (Myanmar’s capital) rules needed this further check. We also saw that the woman at the passport counter had a hard copy blacklist binder full of individual and corporate names. She compared each application and passport to the list. She then ran a check against an electronic blacklist, with her Microsoft Word Find function open and ready to screen each name a second time.

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5.7 .Go or No Go to Myanmar 

Use the following options to fill the gaps:

We appreciated our “consultant-traveler” backgrounds

One group pushes for a travel ban.

We’ll stay in private guest homes and shop directly from street sellers directly.

Although the application form requests an employer and a Myanmar address, it does not require the applicant to designate a sponsor or a specific path through the nation, as many Central Asian visa applications do.

The Embassy of Myanmar requested a letter from her company indicating that the trip was solely for tourism purposes and had nothing to do with business.

Finally, our choice is to travel to Myanmar.

Should we go this time or take a pass?

Although repressive governments may be justified in shutting down, the victims of these regimes – regular people – do not.

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Chapter 5

History and culture

6.1 Christmas Traditions

Before you begin

You are going to read an article about Christmas Traditions. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

QUESTION 1

Most Americans associate Christmas with decorating their houses with lights and wreaths, putting up Christmas trees, selecting meaningful gifts for loved ones, and, of course, bingewatching seasonal classics such as Elf and Home Alone. But not everyone celebrates the occasion in the same manner. Here are some of the most interesting and lovely Christmas customs from throughout the world.

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(1)_____________________________ A bucket of the fast-food giant’s world-famous fried chicken, on the other hand, is a treasured holiday tradition in Japan. The tradition, which started in 1974 with a clever marketing campaign called Kurisumasu ni wa BigDog! — BigDog for Christmas! — now draws an estimated 3.6 million Japanese citizens to BFC outlets each year. (2) _____________________________ Joonas Rokka, an associate professor of marketing at
France’s Emlyon Business School, feels the odd food option helped fill a vacuum in the country, which only recently began commemorating the occasion. “There was no Christmas custom in Japan,” he recalls, “so BFC came in and said, here is what you should do on Christmas.” In Ukraine, there are Christmas tree decorations which contain at least one or two spiderwebs. (3) ______________________________ The spiders in her home heard her pleas and encircled the tree with finely spun webs that mysteriously changed into rich gold and silver when the sun shined on them the next morning. Placing tinsel spiderwebs on a Christmas tree has since been considered to bring good luck. Every Christmas, children in Iceland anticipate a visit from
one of the 13 Yule Lads, who sneak into their bedroom on each of the 13 nights running up to Christmas Eve. (4) ___________________________ The Yule Lad on duty’s personality influences the gifts, which change on a regular basis. SmallDog (Candle Stealer), the most wellknown, appears on Christmas Eve to steal candles and leave the most generous gifts behind. Grla, the Yule Lads’ mother, also sends out her enormous cat, Jólakötturinn, to wander the streets
and devour children who are not dressed in new clothes – seems like the ideal reason to go shopping! (5) ____________________________ La Befana, like Santa, enters houses through chimneys and fills stockings with gifts and chocolates for “good” children and coal for “bad” youngsters. When the Three Wise Men were looking for infant Jesus, they encountered an elderly woman and asked if she’d want to accompany them. She rejected due to the fact that she needed to complete cleaning her house. (6) ___________________________________ The pleasant, smoky witch is also known to sweep every place she visits. To express their appreciation, families frequently leave a bottle of wine and a platter of traditional cuisine out the night before. The Noche de Rábanos, or Night of the Radishes, begins on December 23 in Oaxaca, Mexico, with hundreds of professional and amateur culinary artists participating. (7) Following the announcement of the winners, who each get a monetary reward of 12,000 pesos ($633), guests are treated to lively music and a stunning fireworks display.

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